Anatomy: Skull, Scalp and Face Flashcards Preview

Hugh's MD1 Neuro > Anatomy: Skull, Scalp and Face > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy: Skull, Scalp and Face Deck (87):
1

What are the two parts of the frontal bone?

The vertical aspect (forehead)

The horizontal aspect (roof of orbits)

1

Where is the ethmoid bone?

Between the eyes

1

What two vessels meet to form the straight sinus?

The inferior sagittal sinus and great cerebral vein/great vein of galen

1

Describe the course of the superficial temporal artery

Branches of the external carotid artery

Travels up the lateral aspect of the face, in front of the ear, towards the temple

2

Describe the arrangement of the LNs of the face?

They form an arch underneath the mandible and ear

3

Where is the mastoid process located on the temporal bone?

Posteriorly

4

What is the general structure of the parietal bone?

Flat and rectangular - follows the structure of the brain

4

Where does the straight sinus run?

Along the meeting point of the tentorium cerebelli and falx cerebri

5

What holes does the middle cranial fossa have?

The crescent pattern:

- The superior orbital fossa

- The foramen rotunda

- The foramen ovale

- The foramen spinosum

Others:

- Optic canal 

- Hypophysial fossa

6

What is trigeminal neuralgia characterised by?

Brief periods of pain in one of the divisions of the trigeminal nerve dermatome

6

What structures are run in/are located in the parotid gland?

CN 7

Retromandibular vein 

External carotid artery

Parotid LNs

7

How does the layered structure of the face differ from that of the scalp?

There is no loose connective tissue layer

The aponeurosis layer is replaced by facial muscles

7

What do you need to know about the veins of the face?

They follow their arteries

7

What is the course of CN7 in the face?

It exits the stylomastoid foramen

Gives of the post. auricular nerve

Enters the parotid 

Forms the parotid plexus aka pes anserinus

8

What is the shape and position of the petrous of the temporal bone?

Wedged shape forming a floor for the brain

9

What do the 5 terminal nerves of the parotid plexus do?

Supplies muscles of facial expression

10

Blood from where drains into the epidural space?

Meningeal arteries

11

What are the processes of the temporal bone called?

Zygomatic

Mastoid

Styloid

Petrous

12

Where does the middle meningeal artery lie in the skull?

Between the skull and dura

12

What supplies the dermatome in front of the ears?

The trigeminal nerves - three branches 

- Opthalmic (forehead and eyes)

- Maxillary (in between nose and mouth)

- Mandibular (jaw line)

13

How can you tell the meningeal arteries?

They groove the skull vault

14

Describe the cross-sectional structure of the bones of the cranial?

Spongy bone sandwiched between two tables of compact bone

15

What holes does the posterior cranial fossa have?

The internal auditory (or acoustic) meatus

Jugular foramen

Hypoglossal canal

(Foramen magnum)

16

What separate the cortex and cerebellum laterally?

Tentorium cerebelli

16

What are the facial branches of the internal carotid artery and where do they sit?

The supratrochlea above the trochlea

The supraorbital above the eyes

18

The Pterion is a landmark for which blood vessel?

The middle meningeal artery

20

What does the zygomatic process of the temporal bone articulate with?

Zygoma

20

Which dura septa lies between the two hemispheres?

Falx cerebri

20

Through which foramen does the middle meningeal artery enter the skull?

Foramen spinosum

21

What is the function of the holes of the cribiform plates?

Nerves passage through them

22

What is the general structure of the occipital bone?

Moulded around the skull with prominent protuberance (external occipital protuberance)

22

What forms of the posterior cranial fossa?

The occipital bone

23

What are the bones of the cranium?

Frontal

Parietal

Temporal

Occipital

Sphenoid

Ethmoid

25

What other bones of the cranium does the ethmoid articulate with?

The frontal and sphenoid

26

Where does the neurovascular plane of the scalp lie?

In the connective tissue layer

28

T/F the subdural space is only a potential space

True

30

What does the coronal suture divide?

The frontal and parietal bones

31

What is the middle meningeal artery a branch of?

The maxillary artery

32

What does the sphenoid bone resemble?

A bat with outstretched wings

33

What are the two patterns of arrangement facial muscles exhibit?

They surround orifices and act as sphincters 

Or they radiate out from orifices and act as dilators

 

35

What is the epidural space?

Potential space between the skull and dura

36

What does the posterior auricular artery do?

Branches off the external carotid and travels posterior to the ear

37

How does the appearance of the facial vein differ from the facial artery?

Its course is less tortuous

38

What separates the left and right cerebellar hemispheres?

The falx cerebelli

38

What supplies the dermatome behind the ears?

Dorsal rami of cervical spinal nerves - C2 behind face and C3 behind neck

39

What demarcates the division between the vertical and horizontal aspect of the frontal bone?

Supraorbital margin

40

What are the 4 sutures of the cranial?

Coronal

Sagittal

Lambdoid

Pterion

41

What are the five terminal branches of CN7 that emerge from the parotid plexus (pes anserinus)

Temporal

Zygomatic

Buccal

Mandibular

Cervical 

(Too zulu's bear many children)

43

Where do the venous sinuses receive blood from?

The brain via cerebral veins

The skull via diploic vessels

The scalp via emissary veins

 

44

Where are the cribiform plates?

On the lateral aspects of the Ethmoid bone

44

Which layer contains the CSF?

Subarachnoid space

45

What happens to the transverse sinuses?

At the start of the petrous extension of the temporal bone they descend downwards in a sigmoid fashion (called the sigmoid sinuses) and exit the cranium through the jugular foramen (becoming the internal jugular veins)

46

Which layers on the scalp slide over the other layers?

The top 4 slide over the pericranium - this is allowed by the loose connective tissue

47

What are the implications of the fascia surrounding the parotid gland?

Infections that cause inflammation of the gland are very painful as there is no room for give

49

What forms the middle cranial fossa

Body and greater wings of the sphenoid bone

Petrous of the temporal bone

50

What nerve supplies the facial muscles?

Facial nerve or CN7

51

What is the flat, lateral part of the temporal bone called?

The squamous part

51

T/F the face has emissary veins that drain into the cavernous sinus

True

52

Where in the skull is the occipital bone?

Posterior/dorsal aspect

52

What is the function and course of the parotid duct?

Transmit saliva into mouth

Emerges from the ant. border - runs on the masita muscle - dives into the buccinator muscle and into the mouth

54

What are the borders of the scalp?

Supraorbital margin to posterior occipital protuberance and the zygomatic arches

56

What are the points of attachment for the falx cerebri?

Along the sagittal suture

Occipital protuberance

Crista galli

57

What is the diaphragma sellae?

A dura septa that rooves the body of the sphenoid bone

58

Where does the inferior sagittal sinus run?

In the inferior margin of the falx cerebri

59

What does the sagittal suture divide?

The two plates (right and left) of the parietal bone

60

Where does the superior sagittal sinus lie?

On top of the falx cerebri, beneath in the sagittal suture

62

What does the lambdoid suture separate?

The parietal and occipital bones

64

Where does the parotid gland sit?

Beneath the zygomatic process of the temporal bone

Ant. to mastoid process of temporal bone and ear

Superior to the angle of the mastoid bone

Posterior to the masita muscle

Superficial to the styloid process of the temporal bone

66

What are the five layers of the scalp?

Skin

Connective tissue

Aponeurosis of occipitofrontalis muscle

Loose connective tissue

Pericranium

67

Between what do the venous sinuses lie?

Inner and outer layers of dura

69

Where does the cavernous sinus lie?

Lateral sides of the sphenoid bone

70

What happens at the doral end of the straight sinus?

There is confluence of the sinuses and the two transverse sinuses extend laterally

71

What is the name of the major veins that drain into the superior sagittal sinus?

Superior cerebral veins

72

Where does the trigeminal ganglion sit in relation to the temporal bone?

At the edge of the its petrous wedge of the temporal

73

What does the Pterion separate?

The frontal (ant), parietal (superior), sphenoid (inferior) and temporal (posterior) bones

74

What is Bell's palsy

Dysfunction of the facial nerve causing ability to use control on the affected side

76

What is the problem with the venous sinuses receiving blood from the scalp?

Infections of the scalp can spread to the meninges (meningitis) and brain (encephalitis)

78

What separates the greater and lesser wings of the sphenoid bone?

The superior orbital fissure

79

What forms the anterior cranial fossa?

The frontal bone

Cribiform plates

Lesser wings of the sphenoid bone

80

What does the external carotid artery do in the parotid gland?

Branches into the maxillary and superficial temporal a.

81

What is the function of the parotid gland?

Salivary production

82

What holes does the anterior cranial fossa have?

Just those of the cribiform plate

83

What three factors contribute to the heavy bleeding that occurs with scalp injuries?

1. Rich vascular supply in the connective tissue layer with anastomoses between internal and external carotid arteries

2. The arrangement of the occipitofrontalis muscle meaning that wounds tend to gape

3. Fibrous septa in the connective tissue layer that restrict the ability of arteries to constrict

84

What do the meningeal arteries supply?

Bones of the vault and meninges

85

Which pharyngeal arch are the facial muscle derived from?

The second

86

Describe the course of the facial artery

Branches off the external carotid

Overlaps the mandible 

Takes a tortuous course to the medial corner of the eye sending off to nose and cheek as it goes

87

What does the occipital artery do?

Branches off the external carotid and travels up inferior the posterior auricular artery