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Hugh's MD1 Neuro > Psychological Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Psychological Development Deck (41):
1

What does thriving after adversity look like?

An increase in the level of function after the event

2

How does culture fit into development?

All development takes place in a cultural context

2

What is a turning point?

A disruption to a trajectory that has the long-term impact of altering the probability of like destinations

2

What is the transactional model?

It states that development takes place through transacting factors

- Genetics

- Constitutional

- Biological/biochemical

- Psychological

- Environmental

3

What factors are protective from adverse outcomes?

Internal resources

External/environmental resources

5

Are all milestones universal?

No, more socially determined behaviours area characterised by enormous variability

5

Do babies and toddlers communicate?

Yes

6

What is does development encompass?

Change at the cellular and neurobiological level

Physical skills "milestones"

Cognitive and language function

Social and emotional functions

Personality and attitudes

Behavioural repertoire

 

7

What are Erikson's life stages?

Infancy

Toddler

Play age

School age

Adolescence

Young adult

Middle adulthood

Old age

9

What are some resources that promote successful development?

Family factors

Community factors

Psychological traits

Positive self-beliefs

Coping skills

10

How does anxiety present in early childhood vs middle childhood?

Early: Separation anxiety

Middle: Specific fears/phobias

11

What are the strengths of Erikson's theory?

Groundbreaking and creative

Makes intuitive sense

High level of abstraction leads to broad ways for further study

Enduring interest in his ideas

12

How does the presentation of depression differ between middle childhood and adolescent?

Middle: Irritability, Somatic complaint, school refusal

Adolescent: Sleep and appetite disturbances, hopelessness, suicidal 

14

What is a matrix of disadvantage

Parents of children with disruptive behaviour disorders have higher rates of domestic violence, substance abuse, depressive disorder, social deprivation and tend to use harsh physical punishments

15

What is temperament?

The automatic associative responses to basic emotional stimuli that determine habits and skills

16

How much of temperament is inherited?

50-60%

16

What is resilience?

Positve adaptation in the context of adversity

18

What are the problems Erikson's theory?

Hard to test empirically

Board and abstract

Reflect norms of 1950

Lack of clarity with regard to time limits for stages

Insufficient attention to negative or maladaptive development

Implies a linear progression

19

What do you want to know when investigating abnormal behaviour?

The age of the individual and the context of the behaviour

20

At what age is concrete operational cognitive development in place?

7 to 12

21

What is a "task"?

A developmental task is one which arises at or abot a certain period in the life of a individual, successful achievemnent of which leads to happiness and to success with later tasks, while failure leads to unhappiness in the individual and difficulty with later tasks

22

What are the weaknesses of the tasks model?

Sociocultural changes have transformed expectation of what is normative

Recent research has challenged the link between achievement of tasks and future happiness and stressed the importance of other constructs such as self-esteem

23

What did Havighurst propose as an alternative to stages?

Tasks

24

What are the important characteristics of Erikson's theory?

Step by step growth

Critial time periods

Importance of psychosocial crises as a driving force

The value of both positive and negative emotions

25

What are the strength's of the tasks model?

Integrates challenges from different domains

Stresses the individual's active role in negotiating tasks

 

26

At what ages is preoperational cognitive development normal?

2-7 years old

27

What are the 4 dimensions of temperament?

Harm avoidance

Reward dependence

Novelty seeking

Persistence

28

How does Erikson's life stages characterise young adulthood?

Intimacy vs Isolation

29

How does Erikson's life stage characterise late adulthood?

Generativity vs stagnation

30

What age is emerging adulthood?

18-25

31

What is the focus of the emerging adulthood life stage?

Identity formation/consolidation

32

What is the average age of menopause?

51

33

How did Levinson's housewives feel in mid-life?

Cheated

Resentful

34

How did Levinson's professional women feel in mid-life?

Disappointed with their achievements

35

Why is the mid-life crisis theory misleading?

Rates of depression and anxiety are at their lowest in the 45-65 age group

36

What is the five factor model of personality?

Neuroticism decreases across adulthood until very late life

Openness to new experiences declines

Agreeableness increases

Conscientiousness diseases

Extraversion stable

37

How is menopause defined?

12 after amenorrhea

38

When are symptoms of menopause worse?

Perimenopause - Around the time of the last period when hormone instability is greatest

39

What are some risk factors for midlife depression?

 

Pre-existing depression

Prior history of troublesome premenstrual symptoms

Number of bothersome menstral symptoms

Poor attitude to ageing

40

What is fluid intelligence?

The ability to problem solve and deal with new situations

41

Personality changes are a red flag for which diseases?

Frontotemporal lobar degeneration

Alzheimer's

Pituitary disease

Diogenes