Development of the Nervous system Flashcards Preview

Hugh's MD1 Neuro > Development of the Nervous system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Development of the Nervous system Deck (37):
1

What is the function of the radial glia in development?

Act as a scaffold for the developing neurons

1

How are motor neurons of the spinal cord organised topographically?

Distal limbs are controlled by motor neurons on the distal aspect of the spinal cord

2

What signal induces the formation of the floor plate and where does it come from?

Sonic hedgehog and the notochord

3

What do new neurons travel up to reach the cortex?

The radial glia

4

What do growth cones consist of?

Cytoskeleton

4

At what level is there dysfunction when a eye is kept shut in the development of a kitten

The visual cortex

5

What is fragile X syndrome caused by?

A mutation in the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1)

5

Which part of the spinal cord has sensory information?

The dorsal horn

5

What induces the development of ventral horn motor neurons of the spinal cord?

Factors released from the floor plate

5

How do interneurons in the spinal cord come about?

Factors (motor neuron factor) released for the motor neurons

5

What is the critical period for vision and hearing in humans?

The first 10 years

6

How does the brain appear in lissencephaly?

Smooth, unfolded surface.

6

What is induction in the context of neural development?

The next stage in development of the specific structures, eg the somites developing muscle and bone

6

What is the significance of the pioneer axons?

They lay down initial axon tracts they proceeding neurons follow

7

What develops first, the head or tail or the neural tube?

Head

7

What is vesiculation of the neural tube?

The narrow tube develops bubbles

8

Where are neural stem cells located in the developing cortex?

In the ventricular zone (at the ventricular surface)

10

How do new cells develop in relation to the neuroepithelium?

The migrate through the neuroepithelium and move up towards the cortex, away from the lumen of the tube

12

Where do neural crest cells come from?

Top of the neural tube

14

The prosencephalon splits into what?

The diencephalon and the telencephalon

15

What are growth cones?

Caps on the end of axons that tow developing axons into position

17

What is the neural plate derived from?

A plate of skin

19

What is the name of the disease where there is not closure of the caudal end of the neural tube?

Spina bifida

20

What happens to the structure of the nervous system postnatally?

Refinement - particularly at the level of the synapses

22

What is the precursor structure of the forebrain?

The prosencephalon

24

Why don't you get incomplete folding of the neural tube in multiple regions?

Because the regions close independently

25

Disorders of neuronal migration include?

Lissencephaly

26

What are some derivative of the neural crest cells?

Peripheral nervous system

Melanocytes

Dentine

Muscle, cartilage and bones of the skull, face, jaw and pharynx

28

What is anacephaly?

Incomplete closure of the neural tube around the vault of the skull - brain doesn't develop fully - still born

29

In which part of the spinal cord are motor located?

Ventral horn

30

Is the retina part of the CNS or PNS?

CNS

31

How do axons develop?

They extend out from the cell body

33

What is the developmental precursor of the retina?

Optic vesicle

34

What directs the development of the growth cones?

Local growth factors

35

What happens to the neural plate for it to become a tube?

The neural groove forms and its lip rise up and connect creating a lumen inside

36

Where does the neural tube close last?

At the bottom of the spinal cord

37

What is the most common cause of male autism?

Fragile X syndrome