What are the 2 most common causes of anemia?
_________ deficiency is the #1 deficiency seen in dairy cattle
What are the 2 etiologies of
What is the 2nd most common deficiency seen
in cattle worldwide?
Copper deficiency can be secondary to
_______ deficiency is associated with high GIT parasite loads
What are the 4 potential causes of
Anemias of Inflammatory Disease?
Fractures or severe trauma
Congenital porphyria can cause anemia.
This type of anemia can be caused by
bracken fern poisoning or soybeal meal toxicity
leading to bone marrow damage or dysplasia
How does water intoxication in young calves when first weaned
lead to anemia?
Massive water intake produces marked hypotonicity
and leads to intravascular hemolysis
This congenital cardiovascular disease is characterized by
poor growth, lethargy, exercise intolerance,
and a loud, holosystolic murmur
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
This congenital cardiovascular disease is characterized
by a calf born with its heart outside of its chest and located in
Ectopia Cordis Cervicalis
This congenital cardiovascular disease is
hereditary and recessive in Holstein cattle.
Calves are born normal but acquire many infections in the first weeks
of life. This can look similar to failure of passive transfer and is due to
leukocytes that cannot properly phagocytize bacteria.
Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD)
This cardiovascular disease occurs after
systemic infections where bacteria lodges in the heart valves.
It is characterized by a holosystolic or holodiastolic murmur.
Will also see tachycardia, jugular distension, SQ edema, ascites,
Valvular Vegetative Endocarditis
What do you expect to see on a hemogram of an animal with
Valvular Vegetative Endocarditis?
neutrophils with a left shift (neutrophilia)
How is Valvular Vegetative Endocarditis treated?
ABx (3 - 5 days)
On necropsy, you find cauliflower lesions on the heart valve
of a cow. What is your primary ddx?
Valvular Vegetative Endocarditis
Brisket Disease is also known as
High altitude disease
What is the etiology of Brisket Disease (High Altitude Disease)?
Cows taken from low to high altitude to graze
undergo hypoxic vasoconstriction. This results in
heart failure which causes edema in the brisket area (between forelimbs)
What clinical signs do you expect to see in
Brisket Disease/High Altitude Disease?
Signs of right CHF
SQ edema of brisket
Jugular distension, tachycardia, pulmonary hypertension, murmurs
What is the most common heart tumor in cattle?
What ingestable toxins are associated with cardiomyopathy?
Plants- Cassia, Phalaris
Deficiency of these 4 substances are associated with cardiomyopathy
What is the most common etiology of pericarditis?
TRAUMA from penetrating foreign body of reticulum
(reticulum sits behind heart, penetrates reticulum, diaphragm, and pericardium)
What are the 4 most common signs of CHF?
Jugular vein distension
This, if heard on auscultation, is
pathognomonic for pericarditis
SPLASHING HEART SOUNDS
(fluid and gas in the pericardial sac)
Can also hear muffled heard sounds
How is pericarditis treated?
Surgery is just a salvage procedure for slaughter- PERICARDIOSTOMY
Atrial fibrillation is _____ in cattle
Atrial fibrillation may accompany ______ disease
Atrial fibrillation may be a sequelae to hypo________