Exam 2: Bovine Digestive Problems Flashcards Preview

RUSVM LAM II Practice Questions > Exam 2: Bovine Digestive Problems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2: Bovine Digestive Problems Deck (101)
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1

This pain response test, called the withers depression test,

is also known as the _______ test.

 

If the cow does not move away from pressure exerted,

they are painful deep in abdomen and may have an

expiratory grunt

SCOOTCH

2

_______ in feces is indicative of inflammation/infection,

and seen in diseases such as Salmonella and BVD

Fibrin

3

In regards to pH:

 

The rumen is normally _______.

Fiber diets have _________ pH and

grain/starch diets have __________ pH

The rumen is normally acidic

Fiber diets have higher (basic) pH and

grain/starch diets have lower (acidic) pH

4

Which of the following can be involved in primary indigestion:

Rumen

Reticulum

Omasum

Abomasum

Rumen

Reticulum

Omasum

 

NOT ABOMASUM

5

Which of the following can be involved in secondary indigestion:

Rumen

Reticulum

Omasum

Abomasum

Abomasum!

 

(along with liver, pharynx, systemic dz, high fever, mastitis, foot rot)

6

In regards to normal forestomach physiology:

 

Contraction starts in the ________, the dorsal sac first, then the ventral sac.

Reticulum

7

In regards to normal forestomach physiology:

The primary cycle is responsible for _________

and

The secondary cycle is responsible for _________

primary = MIXING

 

secondary = ERUCTATION

8

BLOAT is defined as distension of the ________ with gas,

and is due to a failure in ________

BLOAT is defined as distension of the rumen with gas,

and is due to a failure in eructation

9

Microbial fermentation results in these two gases to

be formed in the rumen

methane

carbon dioxide

10

T/F:

 

Bloat is due to excess gas production from overactivity of microbes in the rumen

FALSE!

 

Bloat is due to failure of the ERUCTATION process

11

Cows fed clover, alfalfa, and soybean,

can have legume pasture bloat,

which is also known as this type of bloat,

where gas is trapped in bubbles and cannot be eructated

FROTHY bloat

12

The 3 causes of bloat:

 

Failure of the ________ to relax

Obstruction of the _________ or ________

Failure of the ________ muscle contraction

The 3 causes of bloat:

 

Failure of the cardia to relax

Obstruction of the esophagus or cardia

Failure of the reticulo-ruminal muscle contraction

13

How is bloat diagnosed?

Passing a stomach tube to

determine if obstruction, frothy bloat, or free gas bloat

14

This is the emergency treatment for bloat in ruminants

where a hole is created in the rumen to release the pressure.

 

Before removing, it is important to instill

___________ to reduce the risk of peritonitis

Trocharization

 

Procaine-Penicillin

15

 

For acute bloat or frothy bloat, foam destabilizers can be administered.

Therabloat, also known as _______,

is a surfactant specifically designed for treating bloat.

 

It destabilizes the foam to the free form so the animal can eructate

POLOXALENE

16

Ruminal hypomotility or stasis results from

absence of ______ input from gastric centers

vagal

17

What do you expect to see on bloodwork 

of an animal with traumatic reticuloperitonitis?

Neutrophilic leukocytosis with a left shift (between 12,000 and 20,000)

Immature WBCs seen in peripheral blood

18

An animal presents with fever and is depressed.

You hear an expiratory grunt and an arched back stance with abducted elbows.

 

In addition, you hear muffled heart sounds and see distended jugular veins.

 

What is your primary ddx?

Traumatic reticuloperitonitis from a sharp foreign body

that has resulted in pericarditis due to penetration of the heart

19

In order to prevent hardware disease, a heavy magnet can be given

prophylactically, and is dropped into the reticulum

in heifers ________ years old

1.5 - 2 years old

20

Anterior functional stenosis results in ________ transport failure,

but ingesta will NOT reflux back into the rumen in this case

omasal

21

Posterior functional stenosis results in a failure of the

_________ to empty into the pylorus.

 

This is characterized by ingesta refluxing back into the rumen

abomasums

22

What is the normal level of chloride in a cow?

99 - 110

23

In regards to vagal indigestion,

 

how is anterior and posterior functional stenosis differentiated?

In posterior functional stenosis, the cow refluxes fluid from

abomasum back into the rumen, resulting in sequestration of chloride.

 

You will see HYPOchloremia on bloodwork which differentiates the two.

 

The lower it gets, the worse the prognosis.

24

What is the pH of normal RUMEN fluid?

slightly ACIDIC

 

roughage diet = 6.0 - 7.0

 

grain diet = 5.5 - 6.5

25

What is the chloride concentration in normal RUMEN fluid?

<30 mEq/liter

26

What microbes are found in normal RUMEN fluid?

Bacteria (mostly anaerobes)

and

Protozoa

27

Acute ruminal acidosis is the most severe

form of _______ indigestion,

due to excess amounts of carbohydrates

fermentative

28

If an animal survives Acute Ruminal Acidosis,

what problems may you see as a sequela to this?

Mycotic rumenitis

Liver abscesses

Polioencephalomalacia (due to thiamine-producing bacteria dying off)

Laminitis

29

You're called out to a farm and several cows are

completely anorectic and markedly depressed.

They are dehydrated and abdominal distension is evident.

Upon auscultation, you note rumen atony.

A couple of cows have begun to have diarrhea.

History from the farmer reveals an increase in grain to their diet just yesterday.

What is your primary ddx?

Acute Ruminal Acidosis

30

You're called out to a farm and several cows are anorectic, depressed,

dehydrated, with abdominal distension and diarrhea. You diagnose them

with Acute Ruminal Acidosis. How do you treat these cows?

Alkalinizing agents: Bicarb, Magnesium carbonate

Antibiotics: Penicillin (kill strep and lactobacillus)

Fluids

Antihistamines and Flunixin (counteract endotoxin)

Thiamine (prevent polioencephalomalacia)

Rumen Transfaunation