Small Ruminant Metabolic Diseases Flashcards Preview

RUSVM LAM II Practice Questions > Small Ruminant Metabolic Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Small Ruminant Metabolic Diseases Deck (25)
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1

This metabolic disease is due to

negative energy balance in late gestation

Pregnancy Toxemia

2

What are the risk factors for pregnancy toxemia?

Late gestation, multiple lambs/kids

Thin animals

Over conditioned animals

Concurrent disease affecting feed intake (foot rot, dominant animal)

3

What clinical signs do you expect to see in animals with

pregnancy toxemia?

Separation from flock

Head-pressing, star-gazing

Ketone smell to breath

Recumbency

4

This is a poor prognostic indicator for pregnancy toxemia

High blood glucose

5

Are animals with pregnancy toxemia hypo or hyperglycemic?

IT DEPENDS on the stage they are in!

6

How do you prevent pregnancy toxemia?

Feed a higher plane of nutrition, especially in the last

4-6 weeks of gestation

7

Why is it important to know the blood glucose status of

animals with pregnancy toxemia?

To know how to treat!

Give GLUCOSE to HYPOglycemic

Give INSULIN to HYPERglycemic

 

Don't mix up or will kill animal!

8

What is the BEST way to treat pregnancy toxemia?

Terminate pregnancy via C-SECTION!

(Not induce, too weak and will lose both mom and baby)

9

These plants can cause hypocalcemia in small ruminants

Oxalate rich plants- PHILODENDRON

10

What are the risk factors associated with hypocalcemia?

Forced exercise

Long distance transport

Feed deprivation

Grazing oxalate rich plants

High magnesium diets

11

What clinical signs do you expect to see in animals with

hypocalcemia

Stilted gait

Muscle tremors

Recumbency

12

What are your 2 top differentials for an ewe in late gestation

that is sick or recumbent?

Pregnancy Toxemia

Hypocalcemia

13

How do you treat hypocalcemia?

Calcium Borogluconate IV

or

Oral Calcium Paste

14

Why must you monitor HR in sheep

treated with Calcium Borogluconate IV

for hypocalcemia?

Can get arrhythmias or asystole

15

What are the risk factors for hypomagnesemia?

Grazing on young, lush, green, cereal crops in the spring

High milk yield in does/ewes

16

A sheep that was recently turned out to lush, green pasture

in the spring is found recumbent and paddling

with extreme muscle tetany.

What is your primary ddx?

Hypomagnesemia

17

How do you treat hypomagnesemia?

Magnesium hypophosphite

(anesthetic if given IV)

18

How much magnesium do sheep and goats require daily

in order to prevent hypomagnesemia?

7 grams

19

_________ deficiency causes cerebral cortical necrosis

(polioencephalomalacia)

THIAMINE

20

What are the risk factors for

polioencephalomalacia due to thiamine deficiency?

Thiaminases

High sulfate intake

Certain drugs that activate thiaminase production

21

Which drugs should be avoided in order to

prevent thiamine deficiency?

AMPROLIUM

Acepromazine

Levamisole

Thiabendazole

22

A sheep has sudden onset of

head pressing, tremors,

STAR-GAZING, blindness,

recumbency, and rumen inactivity

soon after being treated for parasites.

What is your primary ddx?

Polioencephalomalacia due to

THIAMINE deficiency

23

What CNS diseases should be on your ddx list

if your primary ddx is 

polioencephalomalacia due to thiamine deficiency?

Lead toxicosis

Meningoencephalitis/Leukoencephalomyelitis

Rabies

Tetanus

Enterotoxemia

 

24

How is thiamine deficiency quickly diagnosed?

By giving Thiamine Hydrochloride and seeing

improvement in 10 minutes

25

How is thiamine deficiency treated?

Thiamine Hydrochloride IV