Flashcards in Anterior Abdominal Wall Deck (33):
Superior borders of anterolateral abdominal wall
Costal margin and xiphoid process
Inferior borders of the anterolateral abdominal wall
Inguinal ligament, Pelvic girdle (iliac crests, ASIS, pubic tubercle, pubic symphysis)
What are the components of the pelvic girdle?
iliac crests, ASIS, pubic tubercle, pubic symphysis
What are the three planes used to create the 9 abdominal regions and where does each run?
Midclavicular lines, Subcostal plane (through inf border of 10th CC), and Transtubercular plane (through iliac tubercles and body of L5)
What are the two planes used to create the four abdominal quadrants and at what vertebral level is the horizontal plane?
Median plane and transumbilical plane. The transumbilical plane is at the level of the IV disc between L3 and L4
Give the contents of the anterolateral abdominal wall in order from superficial to deep
Skin, Camper subcutaneous tissue, Scarpa subcutaneous tissue, Deep fascia, Muscles and their aponeur, Transversalis Fascia, Extraperitoneal Fat, Parietal Peritoneum
What is the difference between camper and scarpa subcutaneous tissue?
Camper is more fatty, Scarpa is more membranous
What are the functions of Camper and Scarpa subcutaneous tissues respectively?
Camper - Fat storage, Scarpa - Compartmentalize fluids (also good for suturing)
How many layers of investing (deep) fascia overly the anterolateral abdominal muscles and their aponeuroses?
3 layers, superficial, intermediate, and deep
Give the bilaterally paired muscles of the anterolateral abdomen and which type each muscles is
External oblique (flat), Internal oblique (flat), Transversus abdominus (flat), Rectus abdominus (vertical), Pyramidalis (vertical)
What is the conjoint tendon comprised of?
Arching fibers of the 1) Internal oblique muscle, and 2) Transversus abdominus muscles
How is the endoabdominal fascia named?
According to the muscle it is lining (e.g. transversalis fascia)
What separates the endoabdominal fascia from the parietal peritoneum?
Extraperitoneal fat (amount depending on person)
What establishes space allowing surgeons anterior access to retroperitoneal structures without entering the peritoneal cavity?
The extraperitoneal fat between the endoabdominal fascia and parietal peritoneum
What can happen in individuals with poorly developed rectus abdominus muscles and what does this look like?
Distended abdomen, may look like a hernia
What is the rectus sheath?
An incomplete fibrous compartment of the rectus abdominis
What is the rectus sheath formed from?
Interweaving of the aponeuroses of the abdominal muscles
Approximately where is the arcuate line located?
1/3 of distance from umbilicus to pubic crest
What does the arcuate line mark the transition between?
Aponeurotic posterior wall of the superior 3/4 of rectus sheath and transversalis fascia covering the inferior 1/4 of the rectus sheath
What is the linea alba?
A midline raphe of all the aponeuroses from both sides interweaving. This white ridge is an optimal place for surgical incisions because it creates minimal bleeding
What dermatome includes the umbilicus?
What dermatome includes the inguinal fold?
What dermatome includes the nipple?
The thoracoabdominal nerves run between what two muscles?
Internal Obliques and Transversus Abdominus muscles
What artery can provide collateral circulation to make up for a compromised superior epigastric artery?
The inferior epigastric artery
What artery is the inferior epigastric artery derived from and where?
External iliac artery, superior to the inguinal ligament
In the anterior abdominal there is venous anastomosis between what two superficial vessels, and in what situation might this come into play?
Lateral thoracic vein and internal thoracic vein. Useful if one of the vena cavae is blocked
In the anterior abdomen there is venous anastomosis between what two deep vessels, and in what situation might this come into play?
Inferior epigastric vein and superior epigastric vein. Useful if either vena cava is blocked
What superficial veins drain the abdominal wall into the SVC and IVC respectively?
Lateral thoracic vein (SVC), Superficial epigastric vein (IVC)
What deep veins drain the abdominal wall into the SVC and IVC respectively?
Superior epigastric vein (SVC), and Inferior epigastric vein (IVC)
What is portocaval circulation?
An abnormal connection between portal and systemic circulation caused by portal hypertension
What is an obvious sign of portocaval circulation?
Caput medusae - Dilation of veins appearing as a worm like venous congestion in the abdomen