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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (17):
1

What portion of the diaphragm does the IVC go through and why?

The tendinous portion (it would probably collapse if it went through the muscular portion)

2

The four embryonic components which comprise the diaphragm

Septum transversum, Pleuroperitoneal membranes, Dorsal mesentary of the esophagus, Muscular ingrowths of lateral body walls

3

What spinal nerves innervate the diaphragm and what is the way to remember this?

C3, C4, and C5 (via the phrenic nerve). C3, 4, 5 keep the diaphragm alive

4

In what section of the diaphragm are congenital hernias seen and what is the embryonic origin of this section?

Posterolateral. Comes from pleuroperitoneal folds and membranes

5

On which side of the diaphragm are congenital hernias most common?

The left (85-90 percent are on this side)

6

What is a congenital diaphragmatic hernia and what is the result?

Failure of normal fusion of pleuroperitoneal membrane. The lung on this side will be severely underdeveloped

7

What is a tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF)?

Abnormal connection between the trachea and esophagus

8

What is the most common anomaly of the lower respiratory tract in embryonic development?

Tracheoesophageal fistulas (TEFs)

9

Describe the arrangement of trachea and esophagus in the most common form (90 percent of cases) of TEF

Proximal esophagus is a blind sac, distal part attaches to trachea at the fistula

10

What is the acronym for developmental deficiencies associated with TEFs and what are the deficiencies?

VACTERL. Vertebra anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac defects, Tracheoesophageal fistula, Esophageal atresia, Renal anomalies, Limb defects

11

Name the stages of lung development and the time period of each

Pseudoglandular stage (5-16 weeks, embryo not viable), Canalicular Stage (16-26 weeks, embryo may be viable), Terminal sac stage (26 weeks-birth), Alveolar stage (32 weeks-8 years)

12

What appears during the canalicular stage of lung maturation?

Respiratory bronchioles

13

What is built up during the alveolar stage of lung maturation and what does it do?

Surfactant. Aids in lungs ability to expand and contract without collapsing

14

What is respiratory distress syndrome and what happens to infants with it?

Surfactant deficiency. Infants develop rapid, labored breathing shortly after birth, and 20 percent die

15

What are the three major respiratory embryonic developmental deficits?

TE fistula (joined trachea and esophagus), Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (incompletely formed diaphragm leads to underdeveloped lung), Respiratory distress syndrome (surfactant deficiency causes labored breathing)

16

What are fetal breathing movements, when do they begin, and what is their purpose?

Fetus breathing in amniotic fluid, they begin before birth, and they condition respiratory muscles. The first breath post birth replaces fluid with air

17

When do respiratory and terminal bronchioles appear?

Respiratory during later portions of canalicular stage, Terminal during pseudoglandular stage

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