Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (17):
What portion of the diaphragm does the IVC go through and why?
The tendinous portion (it would probably collapse if it went through the muscular portion)
The four embryonic components which comprise the diaphragm
Septum transversum, Pleuroperitoneal membranes, Dorsal mesentary of the esophagus, Muscular ingrowths of lateral body walls
What spinal nerves innervate the diaphragm and what is the way to remember this?
C3, C4, and C5 (via the phrenic nerve). C3, 4, 5 keep the diaphragm alive
In what section of the diaphragm are congenital hernias seen and what is the embryonic origin of this section?
Posterolateral. Comes from pleuroperitoneal folds and membranes
On which side of the diaphragm are congenital hernias most common?
The left (85-90 percent are on this side)
What is a congenital diaphragmatic hernia and what is the result?
Failure of normal fusion of pleuroperitoneal membrane. The lung on this side will be severely underdeveloped
What is a tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF)?
Abnormal connection between the trachea and esophagus
What is the most common anomaly of the lower respiratory tract in embryonic development?
Tracheoesophageal fistulas (TEFs)
Describe the arrangement of trachea and esophagus in the most common form (90 percent of cases) of TEF
Proximal esophagus is a blind sac, distal part attaches to trachea at the fistula
What is the acronym for developmental deficiencies associated with TEFs and what are the deficiencies?
VACTERL. Vertebra anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac defects, Tracheoesophageal fistula, Esophageal atresia, Renal anomalies, Limb defects
Name the stages of lung development and the time period of each
Pseudoglandular stage (5-16 weeks, embryo not viable), Canalicular Stage (16-26 weeks, embryo may be viable), Terminal sac stage (26 weeks-birth), Alveolar stage (32 weeks-8 years)
What appears during the canalicular stage of lung maturation?
What is built up during the alveolar stage of lung maturation and what does it do?
Surfactant. Aids in lungs ability to expand and contract without collapsing
What is respiratory distress syndrome and what happens to infants with it?
Surfactant deficiency. Infants develop rapid, labored breathing shortly after birth, and 20 percent die
What are the three major respiratory embryonic developmental deficits?
TE fistula (joined trachea and esophagus), Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (incompletely formed diaphragm leads to underdeveloped lung), Respiratory distress syndrome (surfactant deficiency causes labored breathing)
What are fetal breathing movements, when do they begin, and what is their purpose?
Fetus breathing in amniotic fluid, they begin before birth, and they condition respiratory muscles. The first breath post birth replaces fluid with air