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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (28):
1

Give the three primary and five secondary vesicles of the developing brain

Primary - Pro, Mes, and Rhomb (encephalon) comprising the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. Secondary - Tel Di Mes Met Myel (encephalon)

2

Give the three primary and five secondary vesicles of the developing brain

Primary - Pro, Mes, and Rhomb (encephalon) comprising the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. Secondary - Tel Di Mes Met Myel (encephalon)

3

Structures and cavities associated with the telencephalon in adults

Cerebral hemispheres, lateral ventricles

4

Structures and cavities associated with the diencephalon in adults

Thalami, third ventricle

5

Structures and cavities associated with the mesencephalon in adults

Midbrain, Aqueduct

6

Structures and cavities associated with the metencephalon in adults

Pons and Cerebellum, Upper part of fourth ventricle

7

Structures and cavities associated with the myelencephalon in adults

Medulla, lower part of fourth ventricle

8

What are the three flexures of the brain?

Cervical, Midbrain, and Pontine

9

The lumen of the spinal cord (central canal) is continuous with what brain structures?

The vesicles (lateral ventricles, third, fourth ventricles)

10

What are the two ends of the neural tube called and when does each close?

Anterior neuropore (25 days), Posterior neuropore (27 days)

11

Why is the early closing of the neural tube clinically significant?

The mother will not know she is pregnant, so she probably will not be taking folic acid, which greatly reduces risk of errors during neural tube closure

12

What are the two types of neural support cells, and of what developmental origin is each?

Macroglia (from neuroepithelium) and Microglia (from mesenchyme)

13

What is the original wall of the neural tube called, and what comes from here?

Neuroepithelial (ventricular zone) layer. Neurons and macroglia of the spinal cord come from here

14

What two areas for the gray and white matter of the spinal cord respectively?

The mantle zone (forms gray matter) and marginal zone (forms white matter)

15

What are the four thickenings of the developing spinal cord and what will each become?

Roof plate (Dorsal septum), Floor plate (Ventral median fissure), Alar plate (Dorsal horn), Basal plate (Ventral horn)

16

What divides the developing dorsal and ventral horns of the spinal cord, and how is it produced?

The sulcus limitans. Produced by differential thickening, allowing it to delineate the alar plate (future dorsal horn) and basal plate (future ventral horn)

17

Specify where neural crest cells come from, and name as many neural crest derivatives as you can

Edges of the neural folds. Derivatives - DRG, Sympathetic ganglia, Melanocytes, Chromaffin cells of adrenal gland, Ganglia of GI tract, Prevertebral ganglia

18

What type of cells are macroglia derived from and what are those cells derived from?

Glioblasts, which are derived from Neuroepithelial cells

19

What two cell types do macroglia give rise to and what does each of those types give rise to?

Astroblasts (Protoplasmic and Fibrous astrocytes), Oligodendroblasts (oligodendrocytes)

20

From what cell type do microglia arise?

Monocytes (from mesenchyme) cells of blood vessels as the CNS becomes vascularized

21

When do the primary brain vesicles (except the mesencephalon, which does not divide) divide to create the secondary brain vesicles?

During the 5th week

22

What is another name for the aqueduct, what can happen to it, and what is the condition associated with this?

Duct of Sylvius, it can become obstructed, this causes hydrocephalus

23

What does the pontine flexure do to the medulla and what is the effect on the developing plates?

It forces it to move laterally. This means the alar (sensory) plates will lie lateral to the basal (motor) plates

24

What is the most common etiology of congenital malformations involving the spinal cord stem?

Defective closure of the neural tube

25

Neural tube defects affect the developing tissue overlying the spinal cord. Give four examples of what types of tissue might be affected

Meninges, vertebral arches, muscles, skin

26

What supplement helps prevent neural tube defects and what percentage does it prevent?

Folic acid, up to 70 percent

27

Spina bifida is the term for neural tube defects that involve what structure?

The vertebral arches

28

What is the difference between a meningocele and a meningomyelocele?

A meningocele occurs when the meninges expand abnormally posterior but the spinal cord develops normally. A meningomyocele occurs when the cord develops excessively posterior, through a hole. Both are types of spina bifida

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