Thoracic Wall and Pectoral Region Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Thoracic Wall and Pectoral Region Deck (29):

What are the parts of the sternum?

Manubrium, body, xiphoid process


Where is the sternal angle of louis?

At the intersection of manubrium and body of sternum, which is also where the costal cartilage of the second rib meets the sternum


Three abdominal organs protected by the rib cage and which ribs?

Liver (right ribs 9-11), Kidneys (ribs 11 and 12), Spleen (left ribs 9-11)


Two types of joints attaching ribs to vertebrae and where each attach

Costovertebral joints (attach heads of ribs to bodies of corresponding vertebra and vertebra above) and Costotransverse joints (attach tubercle of rib to transverse process of vertebra)


Describe the three types of ribs and the number of each

7 pairs of true ribs, 3 pairs of vertebrochondral (false) ribs, 2 pairs of floating ribs


What three ribs have an atypical number of vertebral attachments

Ribs 1, 11, and 12. They only attach to their corresponding vertebrae



Soreness of either the interface of rib and costal cartilage or costal cartilage and sternum, often caused by excessive coughing


Where does the scalenus anterior m (anterior scalenus muscle) attach?

Arises from transverse processes of 3-6 cervical vertebra and attaches to scalene tubercle of first rib (something special about 1st rib)



The four (usually fused in adults) sections which comprise the body of the sternum


Why is the sternum an optimal target for bone marrow biopsy?

It is rich in bone marrow, and it is superficial and easy to access


Upon inspiration which way do the sternum and ribs move respectively?

Sternum moves anterosuperiorly (forward and up), ribs move laterosuperiorly (out and up). Both motions expand the chest cavity


Give the posterior, lateral, and medial borders of the breast as well as which ribs it is anterior to

Posterior - The retro-mammary space (anterior to deep fascia of pec muscle), Lateral - Midaxillary line, Medially - The parasternal margin. The breast is located from the 2nd to the 6th rib


Give the flow of milk within the breast

Mammary gland lobule to lactiferous duct to lactiferous sinus to areola and nipple


How many lactiferous ducts empty into each lactiferous sinus?



Ligaments of Cooper

Suspensory ligaments in the breast (especially superior breast) which support the weight of the breast


What does the areola do?

Secrete oils during breast feeding


Give the innervation of the breast, and specifically the nipple

Breast - Intercostal nerves 2-6, Nipple - Intercostal nerve 4


Name the 4 arterial branches of the breast and trace each back to a major artery (against the flow of blood)

Lateral mammary branches (lateral thoracic --> Axillary), Medial mammary branches (Internal thoracic --> Subclavian), Mammary branches of deep regions of the breast (Intercostal arteries), Pectoral branches of thoracoacromial artery (Thoracoacromial --> Axillary)


What major veins do veins of the breast drain into?

Axillary, internal thoracic, and intercostal veins


Give the two primary places to which lymph of the breast drains and the approximate percentage going to each location

75 percent to superior and lateral to Axillary nodes and most of remainder going to parasternal nodes


Give the arteries that branch off the axillary artery in each of its three parts

First part - superior thoracic a, Second part - Thoracoacromial a, Lateral thoracic a, Third Part - Subscapular a, Ant. humeral circumflex a, Post. humeral circumflex


What artery does the internal thoracic arise from, where does it bifurcate, and into what two arteries?

Subclavian artery, at 6th intercostal space bifurcates into musculophrenic artery and superior epigastric artery


What arteries are given off by the internal thoracic and with what do they anastomose?

The anterior intercostal arteries, they anastomose with the posterior intercostal arteries (which are branches of the descending aorta)


Give venous drainage for the anterior and posterior thoracic wall respectively

Internal thoracic veins, Azygos system


Between which two layers of intercostal muscle do intercostal nerves and vessels run?

Between internal and innermost


Where do collateral branches of intercostal vessels and nerves run relative to other intercostal vessels?

Inferior. The collateral branches cross the intercostal space and run superior to the rib below, whereas the regular branches run inferior to the rib above


Give the branches given off by the subclavian artery, which part of the subclavian each branches off from, and the mnemonic for remembering these

First Part - Vertebral Artery a, Internal Thoracic a, Thyrocervical Trunk. Second Part - Costocervical trunk. Third (or Second) part - Dorsal Scapular a. Mnemonic is VITamin C and D (VITCD)


What artery runs down the trapezius side by side with the accessory nerve (CN XI)?

The superficial branch of the transverse cervical artery


The long thoracic and thoracodorsal nerves run similar courses, give two ways these two nerves can be distinguished

1) The thoracodorsal nerve originates from the brachial plexus, whereas the long thoracic originates from C5,C6 and C7 in the neck. 2) The long thoracic runs along the medial (trunk wall) aspect of the axilla, the thoracodorsal runs along the lateral/posterior (upper limb) aspect of the axilla down the arm.

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