Lungs and Pleura Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lungs and Pleura Deck (25):

Pleural cupula

The covering of the apex of the lung, which sticks out above the superior thoracic aperture


What reinforces the plural cupula?

Sibsons fascia (suprapleural membrane)


Bare area of pericardium

left portion of the sternocostal aspect of the pericardium, which is not overlapped by parietal pleura (left pleural sac) or lung due to their cardiac notches


What are the two pleural recesses and where are they?

Costodiaphragmatic recess (between peripheral diaphragmatic pleura and lowest parts of costal pleura), and costomediastinal recess (between mediastinal pleura and costal pleura)


Name the fissures and lobes of the right lung

Right oblique fissure (divides lower from middle lobe) and horizontal fissure (divides lower from upper and middle from upper lobes), lower, middle and upper lobes


What is the fissure of the left lung?

Oblique fissure


For the visceral pleura and parietal pleura respectively, what are they innervated by and are they sensitive to pain?

Visceral - autonomic nervous system, no. Parietal - somatic nervous system, yes


The costal pleura and peripheral parts of diaphragmatic pleura are innervated by what nerves?

Intercostal nerves


Central sections of the diphragmatic pleura and mediastinal pleura are innervated by what?

Phrenic nerves


Where does the trachea bifurcate?

At the transverse thoracic plane (Carina)


Give the levels of bronchial segmentation and what each level supplies

Main (primary) bronchi supply a lung, Secondary (lobar) bronchi supply a lobe, Tertiary (Segmental) Bronchi supply a bronchopulmonary segment


What are the two primary things that are supplied to a given bronchopulmonary segment?

A segmental (tertiary) bronchus and a segmental branch of pulmonary artery


What drains a given bronchopulmonary segment?

An intersegmental pulmonary vein in the septum between bronchopulmonary segments


How many bronchopulmonary segments does each lung have?

Right - 10, Left - 8-10


What are the two vascular systems of the lungs?

Pulmonary system (supply deoxygenated blood to be oxygenated) and Bronchial system (systemic circulation to large conducting structures such as bronchi)


Where are the visceral and parietal pleura continuous?

At the hilum of the lung


Pneumothorax, hydrothorax, and hemothorax

Air, fluid, and blood respectively in the pleural cavity


Parts of the parietal pleura

Costal, mediastinal, diaphragmatic, cervical


Where do the right and left bronchial veins drain respectively?

Right - Azygos vein, Left - Accessory hemiazygos vein or Left Superior Intercostal vein


What are the two systems for lymphatic drainage of the lung and what parts of the lung does each drain?

Superficial lymphatic plexus drains lymph from lung tissue and visceral pleura, Deep lymphatic plexus drains lymph from root of lung


Trace the route of lymphatic drainage from structures in the root of the lung

Deep lymphatic plexus --> Pulmonary lymph nodes (along lobar bronchi) --> Bronchopulmonary (hilar) nodes --> Superior tracheobronchial nodes --> Bronchomediastinal lymph trunks --> Venous angle


Trace the route of lymphatic drainage from a structure in the lung or visceral pleura

Superficial lymphatic plexus --> Bronchopulmonary (hilar) nodes --> Superior tracheobronchial nodes --> Bronchomediastinal lymph trunks --> Venous angle


Describe generally where lymphatic drainage of the left and right lung ends up

Right lung moves superiorly to right venous angle, lower lobe of left lung crosses Carina and follows right lung, upper lobe of left lung moves superiorly to left venous angle


Give the division of the airway starting with a main bronchus and ending with the capillary wall

Main Bronchus (primary), Lobar bronchus (secondary), Segmental bronchus (tertiary), Bronchiole, Terminal Bronchiole, Respiratory Bronchiole, Alveolar duct, Alveolus, Alveolar-Capillary barrier


Give the number of bronchopulmonary segments in each lobe of each lung and the acronyms for the names of segments in each lung

Right Superior 3 (Apical, Posterior, Anterior), Right Middle 2 (Lateral, Medial), Right Lower 5 (Superior, Medial-Basal, Anterior-Basal, Lateral-Basal, Posterior-Basal) [A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm]. Left Superior 2 (Apico-Posterior, Anterior), Left Lingula 2 (Inferior Lingular, Superior Lingular), Left Inferior 4 (Superior, Anteromedial Basal, Posterior Basal, Lateral Basal) [ASIA ALPS] (not in order)

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