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Anatomy > Foot > Flashcards

Flashcards in Foot Deck (41):
1

What structure is commonly injured in evlusion fractures?

The fifth metatarsal

2

What bone is wedged between the cuneiform bones?

The second metatarsal

3

Which bones of the foot articulate with the leg?

Only the talus

4

List the muscular attachments of the talus

None. It has no muscular attachments

5

List the bones of the hindfoot

Calcaneus and talus

6

List the bones of the midfoot

Navicular, cuboid, the three cuneiforms

7

List the bones of the forefoot

The metatarsals and phalanges

8

Name the tarsals

Lateral, intermediate, and medial Cuneiforms, Navicular, Cuboid, Talus, Calcaneus

9

Which metatarsal is the biggest and why?

First, to bear more weight

10

Which toe is the most stable and why?

The second, because its metatarsal is wedged between cuneiforms

11

Beside acting as a keystone, what does the cuboid bone do?

Serves as a pulley (changes the direction of force) for the fibularis longus muscle

12

List the retinacula of the foot

Flexor retinaculum, Extensor retinacula (superior and inferior), Fibular retinacula (superior and inferior)

13

What might cause tarsal tunnel syndrome?

A pronated (flat) foot or a sudden increase in activity level

14

What serves as the keystone for the lateral arch?

The cuboid bone

15

What is the plantar aponeurosis

Deep fascia that is bound to the skin and superficial fascia of the plantar surface of the foot

16

Where does the plantar aponeurosis originate?

From the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity

17

What structures are formed by the plantar aponeurosis?

Superficial transverse metatarsal ligaments

18

What is plantar fasciitis and what are risk factors for it?

Inflammation of plantar fascia caused by overstretching. Risk factors include increase in activity level, pronation during heel off phase, wearing high heels

19

What is contained in the medial compartment of the sole?

Abductor hallucis, flexor hallucis brevis, tendon of the flexor hallucis longus, medial plantar nerve and vessels

20

What is contained in the central compartment of the sole?

Flexor digitorum brevis, tendon of flexor hallucis longus, tendons of flexor digitorum longus (quadratus plantae, lumbricals), adductor hallucis, lateral plantar nerve and vessels

21

What does the lateral compartment of the sole contain?

Abductor digiti minimi brevis, flexor digiti minimi brevis

22

What does the first layer of the plantar surface contain?

Abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, abductor digiti minimi

23

What is the innervation of structures in the first layer of plantar surface?

Medial plantar nerve (abdutor hallucis and flexor digitorum brevis) and Lateral plantar nerve (abductor digiti minimi)

24

Give the origins of muscles of the first layer of the plantar surface

Calcaneus (for all of them)

25

What are the structures of the second layer of the plantar surface?

Quadratus plantae, tendon of flexor hallucis longus, lumbricals

26

Give the origins of the muscles of the second layer of the plantar surface

Calcaneus (quadratus plantae) and Tendons of the Flexor Digitorum Longus (Lumbricals)

27

Give the insertion of the muscles of the second layer of the plantar surface

Tendon of flexor digitorum longus (Quadratus plantae), Extensor expansion over 2nd to 5th digits (Lumbricals)

28

What is the effect of the quadratus plantae?

Has a Lateral Pull effect on the flexor digitorum longus

29

What are the muscles of the third layer of the plantar surface?

Flexor hallucis brevis (2 portions), adductor hallucis (oblique and transverse heads), flexor digiti minimi brevis

30

Give the insertion of the muscles of the third layer of the plantar surface

Proximal phalanx of 1st or 5th digit

31

A sesamoid bone can be found in which tendon of the foot?

Each tendon of the flexor hallucis brevis

32

What structures are in the fourth layer of the plantar surface?

4 dorsal interossei, 3 plantar interossei

33

What do the muscles of the fourth layer of the plantar surface do?

Dorsal interossei abduct toes 2-4 (DAB) and Plantar interossei adduct toes 3-5 (PAD)

34

What innervates muscles of the fourth layer of the plantar surface?

Bridges of the lateral plantar nerve

35

What structure creates a tunnel for the tendon of fibularis longus?

The long plantar ligament

36

What is another name for the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament and what does it do?

Spring ligament. Forms a shelf for the talus

37

What three structures help support the medial foot?

Tibialis anterior tendon, fibularis longus tendon, tibialis posterior tendon

38

What anomaly would be seen if you didnt have a quadratus plantae muscle?

When you flexed your toes they would curve medially

39

The lumbricals of the foot make a similar movement to the lumbricals of the hand. What movement do the hand lumbricals make?

A `bye bye` movement (waving hand bye bye, flexing MTP and extending IP joints)

40

Are the lateral plantar nerve and artery superficial or deep to the quadratus plantae?

Superficial

41

What structure is used as the axis for determine ABduction versus ADduction in the foot?

The second toe

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