Flashcards in Foot Deck (41):
What structure is commonly injured in evlusion fractures?
The fifth metatarsal
What bone is wedged between the cuneiform bones?
The second metatarsal
Which bones of the foot articulate with the leg?
Only the talus
List the muscular attachments of the talus
None. It has no muscular attachments
List the bones of the hindfoot
Calcaneus and talus
List the bones of the midfoot
Navicular, cuboid, the three cuneiforms
List the bones of the forefoot
The metatarsals and phalanges
Name the tarsals
Lateral, intermediate, and medial Cuneiforms, Navicular, Cuboid, Talus, Calcaneus
Which metatarsal is the biggest and why?
First, to bear more weight
Which toe is the most stable and why?
The second, because its metatarsal is wedged between cuneiforms
Beside acting as a keystone, what does the cuboid bone do?
Serves as a pulley (changes the direction of force) for the fibularis longus muscle
List the retinacula of the foot
Flexor retinaculum, Extensor retinacula (superior and inferior), Fibular retinacula (superior and inferior)
What might cause tarsal tunnel syndrome?
A pronated (flat) foot or a sudden increase in activity level
What serves as the keystone for the lateral arch?
The cuboid bone
What is the plantar aponeurosis
Deep fascia that is bound to the skin and superficial fascia of the plantar surface of the foot
Where does the plantar aponeurosis originate?
From the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity
What structures are formed by the plantar aponeurosis?
Superficial transverse metatarsal ligaments
What is plantar fasciitis and what are risk factors for it?
Inflammation of plantar fascia caused by overstretching. Risk factors include increase in activity level, pronation during heel off phase, wearing high heels
What is contained in the medial compartment of the sole?
Abductor hallucis, flexor hallucis brevis, tendon of the flexor hallucis longus, medial plantar nerve and vessels
What is contained in the central compartment of the sole?
Flexor digitorum brevis, tendon of flexor hallucis longus, tendons of flexor digitorum longus (quadratus plantae, lumbricals), adductor hallucis, lateral plantar nerve and vessels
What does the lateral compartment of the sole contain?
Abductor digiti minimi brevis, flexor digiti minimi brevis
What does the first layer of the plantar surface contain?
Abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, abductor digiti minimi
What is the innervation of structures in the first layer of plantar surface?
Medial plantar nerve (abdutor hallucis and flexor digitorum brevis) and Lateral plantar nerve (abductor digiti minimi)
Give the origins of muscles of the first layer of the plantar surface
Calcaneus (for all of them)
What are the structures of the second layer of the plantar surface?
Quadratus plantae, tendon of flexor hallucis longus, lumbricals
Give the origins of the muscles of the second layer of the plantar surface
Calcaneus (quadratus plantae) and Tendons of the Flexor Digitorum Longus (Lumbricals)
Give the insertion of the muscles of the second layer of the plantar surface
Tendon of flexor digitorum longus (Quadratus plantae), Extensor expansion over 2nd to 5th digits (Lumbricals)
What is the effect of the quadratus plantae?
Has a Lateral Pull effect on the flexor digitorum longus
What are the muscles of the third layer of the plantar surface?
Flexor hallucis brevis (2 portions), adductor hallucis (oblique and transverse heads), flexor digiti minimi brevis
Give the insertion of the muscles of the third layer of the plantar surface
Proximal phalanx of 1st or 5th digit
A sesamoid bone can be found in which tendon of the foot?
Each tendon of the flexor hallucis brevis
What structures are in the fourth layer of the plantar surface?
4 dorsal interossei, 3 plantar interossei
What do the muscles of the fourth layer of the plantar surface do?
Dorsal interossei abduct toes 2-4 (DAB) and Plantar interossei adduct toes 3-5 (PAD)
What innervates muscles of the fourth layer of the plantar surface?
Bridges of the lateral plantar nerve
What structure creates a tunnel for the tendon of fibularis longus?
The long plantar ligament
What is another name for the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament and what does it do?
Spring ligament. Forms a shelf for the talus
What three structures help support the medial foot?
Tibialis anterior tendon, fibularis longus tendon, tibialis posterior tendon
What anomaly would be seen if you didnt have a quadratus plantae muscle?
When you flexed your toes they would curve medially
The lumbricals of the foot make a similar movement to the lumbricals of the hand. What movement do the hand lumbricals make?
A `bye bye` movement (waving hand bye bye, flexing MTP and extending IP joints)
Are the lateral plantar nerve and artery superficial or deep to the quadratus plantae?