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Flashcards in Inguinal Region Deck (36):

What two structures does the inguinal canal run between?

Deep inguinal ring and Superficial inguinal ring


The inguinal canal runs parallel to what structure?

The inguinal ligament


The inguinal canal is a passageway for what structures?

Spermatic cord (males), Round ligament of uterus (females)


The inguinal ligament allows the spermatic cord and round ligament of uterus passage through what part of the body?

Inferior part of abdominal wall


What nerve is found in the inguinal canal, and what is the difference in its course and those of the main structures of the inguinal canal?

The ilioinguinal nerve. It travels in the canal but does not enter at the deep inguinal ring


The inguinal canal runs immediately ________ to the medial half of the inguinal ligament



What is a main potential weak spot of the lower abdominal wall, especially in males?

The inguinal canal


Where do the testes originally develop?

On the posterior abdominal wall outside the peritoneum


The testis descend into the scrotum along an evagination of the peritneum known as what?

Processus vaginalis


Where is the processus vaginalis, what two layers does it have, what does it do, and what part does not degenerate?

An evagination of the peritoneum, it has parietal and visceral layer, it surrounds the testes, and the distal part (tunica vaginalis testis) does not degenerate


What is the primary component of the anterior wall of the inguinal canal and what is this wall reinforced by?

Primarily aponeurosis of EAO muscle, reinforced laterally by fibers of the IAO muscle


What forms the posterior wall of the inguinal canal and what reinforces this wall?

Transversalis fascia, reinforced medially by conjoint tendon (common tendon of IAO and TA)


What forms the roof of the inguinal canal?

Arching fibers of the IAO and TA muscles


What forms the floor of the inguinal canal and what reinforces it?

The superior aspect of the inguinal ligament (EAO aponeurosis), reinforced medially by lacunar ligament


What is the lacunar ligament formed from, what does it help form, and what does it do?

Formed from shelflike extension of EAO aponeurosis, helps form floor of inguinal canal, and it supports spermatic cord (males) and round ligament of uterus (females)


What are the two parts of the superficial inguinal ring and what does each attach to?

Lateral crus (attaches to pubic tubercle), Medial crus (attaches to body of pubis)


What keeps the superficial inguinal ring from splitting apart

Intercrural fibers running perpendicular to the crural fibers


What is the deep inguinal ring made of?

It is an evagination of transversalis fascia


Where is the deep inguinal ring located?

Above the midpoint of the inguinal ligament and lateral to the inferior epigastric vessels


Which of the inguinal rings are visible externally?

Only the superficial ring


Where does the spermatic cord begin, what structure does it pass through, and where does it end up?

Begins at deep inguinal ring, passes through inguinal canal, and ends up at the testes


List the contents of the spermatic cord

Ductus deferens, Testicular artery, Pampiniform plexus of veins, Genital bridge of genitofemoral nerve, Lymphatics, sympathetic nerve fibers, additional smaller arteries


What innervates the cremaster muscle?

The genital bridge of the genitofemoral nerve


Where do the lymphatics of the testis and ovary drain to?

Lumbar and pre-aortic lymph nodes


Where do the scrotum and labia majora lymphatics drain to?

Superficial inguinal nodes


What do the superficial inguinal lymph nodes parallel?

The inferior border of the inguinal ligament


Hydrocele testis

Accumulation of excess fluid in the tunica vaginalis (remnant of peritoneum around the testis)


What is the issue with vericosities of the scrotum?

Torsion of the spermatic cord can cut off blood supply



Accumulation of sperm on one or both sides. Can lead to cyst of sperm and fluid


Give the primary difference between direct and indirect hernias

Indirect follow the pathway of the descent of the testis, direct do not follow that path


The inguinal triangle is the site of which type of hernia?



Where does a direct hernia push through the canal wall?

Medial to the inferior epigastric vessels


How does a direct hernia reach the superficial ring?

By passing around or through the conjoint tendon


Which type of hernia is acquired and which is congenital?

Direct is acquired, indirect is congenital


Where does an indirect hernia enter the inguinal canal?

Lateral to the inferior epigastric vessels


What congenital abnormality usually leads to indirect hernias?

A patent processus vaginalis

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