ANTH 205 - Exam 3 Review (culture & disease patterning + Filariasis in India)) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH 205 - Exam 3 Review (culture & disease patterning + Filariasis in India)) Deck (49)
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1
Q

What is never Random, but always patterned?

A

Disease -

2
Q

What are the 4 Categories of Variables of Disease Patterning?

A
  1. Environmental
  2. Demographic
  3. Idiosyncratic
  4. Cultural -
3
Q

What category of variables of disease patterning is it when some diseases are more common or even restricted to certain areas, most of our bad diseases today are from tropical areas (example: Filariasis in India, Malaria)?

A

Environmental -

4
Q

Describe the origins of Malaria:

A

*Began about 2000 years ago in Central and West Africa with the spread of agriculture.
*The deforestation of tropical areas caused the rapid spread of the disease.
*Transmission by mosquitoes.
*Occurs mostly in rural, poor economical areas. -

5
Q

What category of variables of disease patterning is it when population factors, how large the population is and how densely settled it is contributes to how strong/deadly the disease gets?

A

Demographic -

6
Q

What is an example of a disease caused by the specific demographic?

A

small pox in the New World -

7
Q

What is a smallpox like disease that wiped out the Aztecs in America?

A

Cocolitzli -

8
Q

What killed over 90% of the Aztec population?

A

Smallpox (Cocolitzli) -

9
Q

What is the severity or harmfulness of a disease?

A

virulence -

10
Q

Describe why small pox was so deadly in some areas and not others:

A

-probability of transmission of disease relates directly to it’s virulence - insurance of transmission selects for higher virulence
-when the probability of transmission of disease is high, more virulent strains will be selected
-when probability of transmission is low, less virulent strains will be selected
-if a disease is so deadly that it kills everyone, the disease will die too
-lots and lots of variations and strains -

11
Q

What happens if a disease is so deadly that it kills everyone?

A

-if a disease is so deadly that it kills everyone, the disease will die too. Cocolitzli died out because it killed all of the Aztecs

12
Q

How do we know how likely a disease is to be transmitted?

A

-probability of transmission of disease relates directly to it’s virulence

13
Q

What category of variables of disease patterning is it when risks which are particular to the individual, can be behavioral or genetic, can be gender-specific like prostate cancer, and behavioral: smoking, working in a coal mine, eating saturated fat all the time?

A

Idiosyncratic -

14
Q

Describe the variables of an indiosyncratic disease?

A

when risks which are particular to the individual, can be behavioral or genetic, can be gender-specific like prostate cancer, and behavioral: smoking, working in a coal mine, eating saturated fat all the time?

15
Q

What category of variables of disease patterning is it when health risks which directly relate to normative cultural behavior?

A

Cultural -

16
Q

What diseases are from the Far East?

A

flu and zoonose -

17
Q

Why is the virulence of the flu from the far east reduced often?

A

because it runs into barriers around the population of the US like immunizations, spread out population, health care, etc… -

18
Q

What are examples of a disease caused by culture?

A

-example: Beri Beri in Thailand (thiamine fortified fish sauce can help)

-example: prostate cancer in U.S.: Americans eat a LOT of red meat, some of the highest prostate cancer rates

-example: heart disease in Japan: traditionally not a problem - diets with vegetables and seafood, very little fat and not much red meat; after WWII and industrial revolution there, along with different changes in lifestyle (more Western idea for business, high-stress work environment, fast food proliferated, increasing heart disease) -

19
Q

How do we track new cases in a specific population each year?

A

Incidence Rate -

20
Q

What is an example of an incidence rate?

A

1200 in 10,000 people obese in Scotland in 2002, but 6000 in 10,000 people obese in US in 2002. -

21
Q

What is the difference between incidence rate and prevalence rate?

A

Prevalence rate is the number of cases, while incidence rate is new cases

22
Q

What is the total number of cases of a particular disease in a given population at a specific period?

A

Prevalence Rate -

23
Q

What is an example of a prevalence rate?

A

12,000/3.3M(total population) obese in Scotland in 2002. -

24
Q

What part of the body is affected by Filariasis?

A

the lower body, mostly legs

25
Q

What is Filariasis?

A

disease that affects the lower body, mostly legs caused by parasitic worms spread by mosquitos -

26
Q

Why is Filariasis common in tropical environments?

A

Because of the stagnant water sources in tropical environments

27
Q

What is the host of Filariasis?

A

human beings -

28
Q

What is the vector of Filariasis?

A

Mosquitos

29
Q

What is the agent of Filariasis?

A

Nematodes (round-like worms that live in the lymphatic system), only active at night, Wucheria bancrofti -

30
Q

How many cases of Filariasis are there in India alone?

A

60 million -

31
Q

How many people are at risk for Filariasis?

A

1.3 billion -

32
Q

How many cases of Filariasis are there worldwide?

A

120 million -

33
Q

What is another name for Filariasis in India?

A

Elephantiasis or Si Poda or Big Foot -

34
Q

What is an illustration of cultural factors and disease?

A

a case study -

35
Q

What is the relationship between a host, agent, and vector?

A

epidemiologic triad -

36
Q

An epidemiologic triad is the relationship between a ______, agent, and vector?

A

host

37
Q

An epidemiologic triad is the relationship between a host, ______, and vector?

A

agent

38
Q

An epidemiologic triad is the relationship between a host, agent, and ______

A

Vector

39
Q

What is the influence of closely associated species on each other in their evolution?

A

Co-Evolution -

40
Q

What is an example of co-evolution?

A

Vector feeds exclusively at night, agent active only at night. It requires both the host and the vector to complete its life cycle. -

41
Q

What are the ecological factors that cause Filariasis?

A

a tropical environment with innumerable stands of stagnant water -

42
Q

What are the demographic factors that cause Filariasis?

A

very dense, unprotected host population. -

43
Q

What are the cultural factors that cause Filariasis?

A
  • belief the elephantiasis is caused by divine punishment, social stigma.
  • virtually no awareness by the native population that mosquitoes carry the disease
  • no recognition by the native population of a connection between the first and succeeding stages of the disease.
  • lack of proper sanitation
  • housing structure provides no physical protection from the vector. -
44
Q

How do living conditions contribute to Filariasis?

A

Lack of proper sanitation. Housing structure provides no physical protection from the vector (mosquitos)

45
Q

How do education factors contribute to the risk of Filariasis?

A

Indians have virtually no awareness that mosquitoes carry the disease.
No recognition by the native population of a connection between the first and succeeding stages of the disease.

46
Q

How does Indian culture view Filariasis?

A

That it is caused by divine punishment, social stigma.

47
Q

What are the stages of Filariasis?

A
  1. Positive test for microfilia, aches, fever, headaches, lethargy
  2. Swelling, acute aches, fever, greater discomfort
  3. Advance Swelling
  4. Advance Swelling + skin tissue starts to die -
48
Q

What is the treatment for Filariasis?

A

Type of chemo therapy that is very painful, causes aggressive outbursts, and six weeks solid. It can be prevented in Stages 1 and 2, but not in 3 and 4.

Another treatment is a drug called DEC. (doesn’t kill the worms, but controls the number of microfilia) -

49
Q

What is the key to convincing the population of the association between mosquitos and filariasis?

A

education