ANTH - Exam 3 Review (Haiti + Africa + Asia) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH - Exam 3 Review (Haiti + Africa + Asia) Deck (94)
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1
Q

What is the location of Haiti?

A

On the island of Hispaniola next to the Dominican Republic -

2
Q

Haiti was once a lush land of tropical rainforest, but what changed that?

A

it was cleared for timber and firewood -

3
Q

What is the meaning behind Haiti’s name?

A

highland
- half of land is over 1500 feet
-top soil is washed away because lack of canopy so they are more vulnerable to hurricanes -

4
Q

What was the name of the people in Haiti?

A

Taino people -

5
Q

About how many of the Taino people in Haiti live on the island?

A

400,000 -

6
Q

Describe the Taino people in Haiti:

A

-friendly and unlikely to fight back
-enslaved -

7
Q

Who’s ships wrecked into the island of Haiti?

A

Christopher Columbus’ Santa Maria, but the Tainos people were very welcoming and offered them shelter -

8
Q

Who later enslaved the Tiano people and brought nearly 30,000 Africans to Hispaniola?

A

Spain -

9
Q

How was the population wiped out in Haiti?

A

by the disease Smallpox -

10
Q

Who was in control of Haiti?

A

Spain and then France
-starting importing slaves from Africa
-Spain got distracted by conquest in Peru
-french pirates took over the territory
-became richest french colony in the world
-made coffee -

11
Q

When did Haiti gain independence?

A

gained during french revolution in 1804 -

12
Q

What happened when Haiti gained it’s independence?

A

the white population was wiped out -

13
Q

Describe the rulings of Haiti:

A

back to back terrible regimes between 1843-1950 -

14
Q

How many dictators has Haiti had?

A

22 dictators -

15
Q

When did the military occupation begin in Haiti?

A

military occupation began in 1915
-were afraid Germans would turn it into submarine base -

16
Q

Describe the Duvaliers rulings:

A

-the presidents were doctors (father and son)
-ruled with terror
-secret police
-escaped to France in 1986 after violent antigovernment protests happened -

17
Q

When did the Duvalier ruling begin in Haiti?

A

1957 -

18
Q

How is the economy in Haiti?

A

it is the poorest country in the western hemisphere
-per capita 450 -

19
Q

What was the Haitian life expectancy?

A

53 years of age -

20
Q

Was the population in Haiti rural or urban?

A

they were rural but are becoming urban due to the soil -

21
Q

What is Haiti’s subsistence?

A

mostly agriculture -

22
Q

What is Haiti’s language?

A

French and Creole -

23
Q

Haiti had no history of public welfare. True or false?

A

True -

24
Q

What destroyed the tourism industries in Haiti?

A

the AIDS epidemic -

25
Q

Describe the education of Haiti:

A

less than half of the children go to school; half of adults are illiterate -

26
Q

What is Haiti’s religion?

A

-Roman Catholicism is the official religion
-Voodoo
-most misunderstood religion
-syncretic religion -

27
Q

What holds a special place in Haitian culture?

A

storytelling -

28
Q

How many people died in the earthquake in Haiti?

A

-220,000 died
-300,000 injured
-1.5 million were forced into makeshift homes -

29
Q

What year did the earthquake in Haiti take place?

A

2010 -

30
Q

What is the estimation of how many Haitians have come to the US?

A

900,000 -

31
Q

How many Haitians have settled in Canada?

A

more than 100,000 -

32
Q

Describe the Haitian Diaspora:

A

-some are in Haiti and some are in the US
-dont have refugee status because they are thought to come for poverty reasons and not political reasons
-Haitians in the US have a hard time blending in. (speak french) -

33
Q

What is the largest country in Africa?

A

Sudan -

34
Q

Where are the Nuer people located?

A

Sudan -

35
Q

What do the Nuer people refer to themselves as?

A

Naath (“the people”) -

36
Q

What is the second largest ethnic group in Sudan?

A

The Nuer -

37
Q

What is the Nuer’s subsistence?

A

pastoralism and horticulture -

38
Q

Describe how the Nuer practice their horticulture:

A

they don’t use crop rotation nor fallowing, and neither fertilize nor irrigate. Instead, they move on to another site when the land is depleted.

And, they move with the seasons -

39
Q

What is the Nuer’s #1 crop?

A

millet, but they depend mostly on cows for dairy products -

40
Q

What is the Nuer’s obsession?

A

cows -

41
Q

Describe the Nuer people’s marriage:

A

-bride price is cattle
-oldest son marries first, next son can’t marry till cows are replenished -

42
Q

What is the Nuer’s kinship?

A

Patrilineal -

43
Q

What is the Nuer people’s sociopolitical type?

A

-no centralized, organized political leadership
-Democratic
-egalitarian -

44
Q

How do the Nuer’s often mediate conflict?

A

they call an informal adjudicator, the leopard-skin chief. -

45
Q

Among the Nuer people, how many patrilineal clans are there?

A

20 -

46
Q

How do the Nuer people react to violence?

A

They love to fight -

47
Q

What is the Nuer’s religion?

A

-they speak of “Kwoth” as the creator, the father, the judge, a guiding force, and recipient of their prayers
-spirits of the above
-spirits of the below -

48
Q

Describe the Nuer Civil War:

A

southern and northern sudan; fighting occurred in 1943; the north is predominantly muslim while south is either indigenous or christian -

49
Q

Who are the lost boys of Sudan?

A

a group of Sudanese refugees which have more than 30,000 children, mostly Nuer people -

50
Q

Where are the lost girls of Sudan?

A

while boys were mostly kept in refugee camps in groups, girls were usually spread out and given to guardians -

51
Q

Sudan has the world’s largest population of internally displaced people, about how many?

A

nearly 5 million -

52
Q

Where was the Hmong’s location?

A

China, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam -

53
Q

What was the meaning behind the name “Hmong”?

A

-means “free people” -
-They were historically referred to as “Meo or Miao”
- “Primitive” or “barbarian”

54
Q

Where do the Hmong still live (and how many in each place?)?

A

-roughly 6 million in China
-350,000 in Vietnam
-250,000 in Laos
-100,000 in Thailand -

55
Q

What was the Hmong’s subsistence?

A

Slash and burn agriculture; opium poppy; livestock important -

56
Q

What is the Hmong’s staple crop?

A

rice and corn -

57
Q

What does the Hmong’s word “Rai” mean?

A

field -

58
Q

How did the Hmong people use the opium poppy?

A

-use of the drug from the flower gives huge profit
-led to opium war between Britain and china
-only cash crop
-used for money for bride price
-used therapeutically to relieve as well as used recreationally -

59
Q

What type of spirits do the Hmong people believe were most important?

A

household spirits, medicinal spirits, nature spirits, and shaman spirits -

60
Q

Describe the language of Hmongs:

A

-tonal language
-tradition transmitted orally
-monosyllabic -

61
Q

What was the Hmong’s housing?

A

-tsevs – hmong houses
-framed in bamboo
-self contained unit -

62
Q

What is the name of an instrument the Hmong people used?

A

Queej; a mouth organ -

63
Q

What was the Hmong’s kinship?

A

patrilineal -

64
Q

What does the Hmong word “xeem” mean?

A

children are members of their father’s clan -

65
Q

Describe the Hmong’s marriage:

A

-arranged by the father of the bride and groom
-polygyny permitted but uncommon
-elopement seen as desire to marry
-no stigma about premarital sex and pregnancy was often third route to marriage -

66
Q

What was the Hmong’s religion?

A

-10-20% converted to Christianity
-majority are animists which revolve around spirit world
-dabs are spirits
-shaman are crucial mediators between worlds -

67
Q

What do the Hmong strive for in all that they do?

A

equilibrium -

68
Q

What is one of the Hmong’s most dangerous of all super natural ailments?

A

soul loss -

69
Q

Describe the war in Indochina:

A

1940s Japanese army attempted to occupy french indochina and half went on Japanese side and half went with French; 1945 Laos declared its independence, but 1946 French retook Laos; War in Vietnam began to take its toll and Hmong were recruited by CIA promised safety from USA but never got it when war ended ended up in imprisonment camps or trying to escape to Thailand -

70
Q

There are a lot of Hmong in what US state?

A

California -

71
Q

What is the name of the film watched in class?

A

Guns, Germs, and Steel
(A National Geographic film part 2- Conquest) -

72
Q

What is the name of the professor who spent his life trying to peel back the layers of history and explore the roots of power?

A

Professor Diamond -

73
Q

When did the Spaniards attack the Incas?

A

1592 -

74
Q

How many Incas and Spaniards were killed in the battle?

A

70,000 Incas and ZERO Spaniards -

75
Q

How far did the Inca empire stretch?

A

2 and a half thousand miles -

76
Q

What was the name of the retired captain who took a group of mercenaries and adventurers on a search for gold?

A

Fransisco Bazarro -

77
Q

What region triggered an explosion of civilization?

A

the fertile crescent -

78
Q

What gave Europeans a massive advantage?

A

horses -

79
Q

Did the Spaniards kill the Inca leader at first?

A

No, they said Christians only kill in the heat of the battle -

80
Q

What was one of the weapons the Spanish had that they were unaware of?

A

diseases (smallpox) -

81
Q

What was Captain Bazarro growing up?

A

a swine herder -

82
Q

After handing over 20 tons of gold and silver to the Spaniards, what did the Spaniards do to the Inca leader?

A

killed him -

83
Q

Where did the first Europeans arrive in Africa?

A

Cape of Good Hope -

84
Q

When did the first Europeans arrive in Africa?

A

Mid 1600s -

85
Q

What part of Africa felt just like Europe?

A

around the Cape because it was in similar distance from the equator so it had a similar climate -

86
Q

What were some of the advantages Europeans had?

A

guns, resistance to diseases, steel (which they used to make guns) -

87
Q

Who destroyed the Europeans after they trespassed onto their kingdom?

A

the Zulu’s -

88
Q

The Zulu’s killed all Europeans, but left the women and children alive. True or false?

A

False. They killed all women, children, and men alike. -

89
Q

After the second attack, were the Europeans or the Zulus dead?

A

The Zulus were massacred and the Europeans won the Battle of Blood River -

90
Q

What helped the Europeans massacre many different tribes through out Africa?

A

The first automatic weapon. -

91
Q

What did the European’s newest enemy become that used to be their greatest ally while they moved through the interior of Africa?

A

geography -

92
Q

What was the second big challenge that Europeans faced in Africa?

A

their animals died -

93
Q

What was the geographic region that Europeans were unaware of as they moved North through Africa?

A

the tropics -

94
Q

What disease started to overwhelm the Europeans who entered the tropics?

A

malaria -