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1
Q

Anthropology

A

The comparative a holistic study of human biology and culture

2
Q

Linguistics

A

Langauage

3
Q

Biological anthropology

A

Aka. Physical

-Human palentology
-Forensics
-Anthropology
-Population genetics
-Osteology

4
Q

Cultural Anthropology

A

-Medical anthropology
-Ethnohistory
-Comparative Religions
-Nutritional anthropology
-Economic anthropology
-Anthropology of development
-applied anthropology

5
Q

Paleontology

A

the study of the human and primate fossil record

6
Q

Osteology

A

The study of the human skeleton

7
Q

What can we learn of through Osteology?

A

-age
-sex
-signs of malnutrition
-Warfare
-Disease
-mass death
-body modifications

8
Q

Porotic Hyperostosis

A

The study of the skull due to iron deficiency or anemia

-honeycomb like structure

9
Q

Harris Lines

A

The Study of the longbones due to long periods of malnutrition

-Looks like stripes

10
Q

Human Variation

A

works with living groups population genetics (blood samples)

11
Q

Anthropometry

A

The study of human weights and measurements

12
Q

What is Anthropometry -
How is the Spanish conquest of Peru and the belief in Evil spirits connected to anthropometry?

A

the scientific study of the measurements and proportions of the human body. It is used to study variations in human form and function (for example to understand differences between people of different races and what may have caused those differences—adaptations)

-Incans have large barrel chests—because Incans live in high altitudes they have adapted larger chests
-Spanish conquest - European Women were having trouble having children in the high altitudes because Europeans had lack of adaptations (they weren’t used to the high altitudes). They believed that Evil spirits were not allowing the babies to be born in Peru, but it was actually that the babies were dying of hypoxia, or lack of oxygen because of the high altitudes.

13
Q

Archeology

A

The study of human cultural remains and attempts to reconstruct the lifeways of past human societies

-Ex. Artifacts found with human burials

14
Q

Neanderthal burials

A

-1st instance of groups burying the dead
-Buried with hand tools and symbols
-Everyone is treated the same

15
Q

Why is the Lascaux Cave important? What socio political level did the burials there reveal?

A

Cave in France that was famous for it’s Paleolithic cave paintings.
-dating back to 18,000 years ago in France
-TRIBAL level (15 year old girl is buried in a robe of shells, even though it wasn’t near the sea, with Painted murals of life size horses. This was different than the rest of the burials and indicated she was royalty)
-Shells = indicates that there were shell trade networks
-Elaborate burial = indicate royalty

16
Q

What are the Etowah Indian Mounds? What socio political level do the mounds reveal?

A

Burial mounds in Georgia built by Native Americans during the time period known as the Mississippian Culture
-built around 1200 AD
-CHIEFTAIN LEVEL because they had separate mounds for different classes, which indicates a caste system
-had 4 different kinds of burials
-Commoners
-Warriors
-Priests
-Royalty

17
Q

What does the Aztec burials indicate about their culture?

A

-1500 AD Mexico
-state level societies
-Lots of specialization (Massive differentiation in burials indicated there was massive differentiation in social stratification/status)

they had state level government, royalty, slaves, sacrifices

18
Q

Linguistic anthropology

A

the study of human language
-Uses core words

19
Q

Glottochronology

A

The use of statistical data to date the divergence of languages from their common sources
-Look at core words
-Look at verbs
-Look at more complex words

20
Q

Cultural Anthropology

A

the comparative and holistic study of human culture, is both historical and contemporary
-looking for trends

21
Q

Comparative

A

Two or more units of analysis are compared
-Looking for patterns

-Ex. Differences in chasity
-Some believe in chasity
-Some believe in multiple partners

22
Q

Holistic

A

eclectic, all perspectives must be examined to explain human phenomena

-Look as a whole

23
Q

Holistic - Ex. Beri Beri in Thailand

A

-Doctors from the west were treating people in Thailand villiages
-Patients were becoming sick from vitamin deficiencies
-Doctors began to practice the culture that the people practiced
-Discovered the fish sauce destroyed the nutrients in the rice

24
Q

Participant Observation

A

Anthropologists live with the people they stufy anf participate in their culture

25
Q

What is Participant Observation - Ex. Chignon and the Yanamamo

A

When anthropologists live with the people they are studying and PARTICIPATE in their culture.

Example:
-Tribes near the Amazon River Basin in Venezuela and Brazil

-Chagnon - Anthropologist interested in learning the culture of the Tribe by observing them.

-Chagnon studied the Yanamamo and their measles outbreak and tried to get names but he was given false names bc in their culture it is wrong to speak of the dead

-Discovered asking about deceased relatives is extremely rude

26
Q

Ethnography and Ethnohistory

A

Detailed information on the way people live their livelyhood and their beliefs

27
Q

Emic Perspective

A

The way particular people view their own behavior

-Insiders perspective

28
Q

Etic Perspective

A

Outsiders Perspective

29
Q

Emic and Etic - Elephantiasis in India

A

Etic - Microscopic parasites populate the body and cause massive inflammation (mosquito transmission)
-When those who are infected are removed from the population, helps lessen the risk of transmission

Emic- People believe the disease is caused by divine punishment. If you get the disease you are disowned and avoided

30
Q

Attributes of Culture

A

Culture is learned, shared, dynamic, an interrelated system and is our primary means of adaptation

31
Q

Learned

A

Acquired, taught by other people, not biological
-3 primary mode of transportation

32
Q

Vertical transmission

A

From the independent to the dependent
-(parents to children)
-Hard to change beliefs

33
Q

Horizontal transmission

A

Between peers
-Fads and Trends

34
Q

Oblique transmission

A

One to many
-Media and Advertisemtns
-Can be for good intent or ill

35
Q

Oblique transmission - The Clean Revolution

A

-1928 ad promotes listerine as a mouthwash
-More ads follow and are harsh

-Clean revolution takes place - spread throughout the 1930s and the great depression
-Soaps, shampoos, disposable diapers, are spread

36
Q

5 major attributes of culture:
What is Shared Culture?

A

everyone participates, is egalitarian, must be transmitted from one person to the next

37
Q

5 major attributes of culture :
What is dynamic culture?

A

culture is always changing

-Horizontal - fast
-Verical - slow

38
Q

Who is associated with Cultural lag? In what type of culture is this a factor?

A

William Ogburn
-He stated that culture takes time to catch up with technological advancements which created this cultural lag.

This is a factor dealing with DYNAMIC culture.

39
Q

Culture is an Interrelated System

A

The idea that cultural traits are not random occurances

40
Q

One sphere will influence another - Why?

A

Social phsycology abd Cognitive Consistency

41
Q

One sphere influences another - Ex. Sue Fisher’s study

A

sue fisher’s study of hispanic versus on-hispanic white women and reproductive cancer is southern california.

  1. conozation (a cone of infected tissue is exised and taken out)
  2. crysurgery ( freezes cells to kill them)
  3. hysterectomy ( removal of uterus)-
    doctors withheld info/treatment due to a womans pain threshold and ethnicity
42
Q

Adaptation

A

Any trait or condition that maximizes an organisms ability to meet its basic physiological needs, and to successfully reproduce

43
Q

Culture is our primary means of

A

adaptation

44
Q

What is genetic adaptation?
How is sickle cell anemia an example of culture being a means of genetic adaptation?

A

A change or adjustment in structure or habits that allows a species to better meet its physiological needs and reproduce.

-Frank Livingston was a specialist in genetic anthropology

-over 1/4 of the world’s population lives in areas where Malaria is rampant
-a disease called SICKLE CELL ANEMIA OFFERS IMMUNITY TO MALARIA.
-People who live in high malaria areas are more likely to have developed Sickle Cell Anemia.
-Livingston was able to prove that Sickle Cell Anemia became more common in these areas because it offered immunity to malaria so more people with this genetic mutation were surviving than those without it.

45
Q

sickle cell anemia

A

-offers immunity to malaria-a mutation of the RBC’s into a sickle shape (oxygen can’t attach well)

46
Q

Developmental

A

occurs during development when you are born

47
Q

Developmental - Ex. Enhanced Vasconstriction and Dialation

A

-vasoconstriction/dilation in skin of Eskimos vs Lower 48: Eskimos showed gradual decrease in hand temp where as the others showed straight drop.-other example is hypoxia in peru (people had larger chests)

48
Q

Cultural

A

In cultural Antro = can expand “adaptation” to include “satisfy basic needs and wants, phsychological, social, emotional, as well as physical”

49
Q

Cultural - Ex. Latent vs. Manifest Function

A

ayahuasca, harmine: is a hallucinogenic plant taken for ritual purification but it also purges the body of intestinal parasites

-Latent function - real function as compared to the spiritual function
-They see parasites washed out - Belive purification

50
Q

3 types of adaptation:
What is Cultural Adaptation?
- Ex. All Technology

A

When people in a society adapt to changes in their natural and social environment by making slight changes in their way of life.

  • ex. Problems have been eradicated due to improvements in technology (how our daily lives change based on new inventions/technology - How we have adapted to these changes.)
51
Q

Cultural - Ex. Pintupi People

A

use many plants and animals even though they are not available (because they are hunter gatherers in the western australian desert). Lived in extremely harsh climate of up to 120 degrees in the summer. Had incredible knowledge of the environment and could name 126 non food plants that could serve 138 social economic and medicinal functions. Also had seasonal adaptions and would spread out when bad weather came

52
Q

ethnocentrism

A

evaluating another culture according to perceptions originating in one’s own culture. ex: cultural extinctions: 87 native american tribes have gone extinct

-Belief that ones own culture is superior

53
Q

xenophobia

A

fear of things foreign

-ex: native Tasmanians fought colonization by the English, and the English justified their offenses by saying the Tasmanians were cannibalistic savages. In reality, they consumed the hearts of dead loved ones after they had passed (as a ritual)
-Nazis feared foreigners and claimed they would dilute the “arian race”

54
Q

cultural relativism

A

regarding the beliefs and practices of another culture from the viewpoint of the culture itself

  • “putting yourself in their perspective”
    -stems from the need to evaluate other cultures behavior and understand it from their point of view-ex: eskimo’s walk off on to ice and die
55
Q

Values

A

emotionally charged preferences

56
Q

What kind of values are highly VARIABLE across a culture?
What are some examples of this?

A

core values (there is a lot of variation in core values across a culture.)

Examples:

US vs. Soviet Union
-Americans and how much they value individual Freedoms (such as freedom of marriage, voting, speech, etc)
-but in the Soviet Union, communists don’t value those freedoms (communist values are also variable because the government chooses what is best)

Pre Marital Chasity (some cultures have dowry’s and some have price for bride)

America vs. Japan concerning openness with bodily functions
-it is customary for the Japanese to bathe with their guests, while Americans are much more modest.
-In Japan they are proud of a condom factory and have a giant condom on top of building; but that would never be allowed in US
-Americans have a weird commercial with dancing raisins, but Japanese have a weird toilet bowl commercial “Shut and Unchi” with a dancing Unchi (poo)

57
Q

Many Values are Idiosyncratic

A

dependent on the individual

58
Q

Values are often_________ in nature - Controversial

A

-Divisive

-Ex. Abortion,Capital punishment, Native American suffrage

59
Q

core values can be _________ , judging other cultures based on your own

A

ethnocentric

-ex: Tasmanian people discriminated against by Australians and Europeans. Led to cultural extinctions

60
Q

values tend to ________, or be consistent with other areas of culture

A

reflect
–ex: extended postpartum sexual taboos are usually found in places with low sources of protein
-Not compatible with the West

61
Q

What is an example of change in values?

A

integrity of the government. In the 1950s everyone trusted the government, but feelings have changed since

62
Q

what are the two types of innovation?

A

invention and discovery

63
Q

What is innovation?

A

-the basis of all culture change
-any knew practice or custom, tool or element of technology, value or principle of knowledge, that becomes widely embraced by a significant number of individuals in a given society - Homer Marnet

64
Q

What is invention?

A

a novel rearrangement or use of preexisting knowledge or technologies
-ex: american football, baseball, invention of the airplane, warfare technology(series of inventions from preexisting technology)

65
Q

What is discovery?

A

a wholly new technology or knowledge; becoming aware of existing phenomena

66
Q

What is Diffusion?

A

The spreading of cultural traits over time and geographical space- sometimes is modified to fit the culture that is borrowing the item

-Americanized food
-100% American
-Coke
-Fast Food (India and Veggie burgers/freshness)
-Hollywood
-Consumerism

67
Q

Relative Advantage

A

does the trait to be adopted pose an advantage to the relative technology or idea that came before it?

68
Q

Compatability

A

Does it fit well as is or does it need to be modified to fit the culture

69
Q

What is the example of Diffusion of the horse?

A

the diffusion of this allowed native americans to turn from being sedentary to hunter gatherers

-brought by the Spanish in 1519
-Brought a shift in culture
-New tools and warfare

70
Q

Diffusion - Ex. Mcdonalds in India

A

Didnt work well as beef is not consumed in the area
-Had to be modified with veggie burgers

71
Q

Diffusion - Ex. Steak houses and sushi

A

Pretty popular
-Sushi was hard to sell
-Got identified with hollywood

72
Q

Spiritism

A

-began mid 19th century-founded by Alan Kardec (pen name of French school teacher)

-Kardec would interview spirits through mediums (had different handwritings with each spirit)
-Goal is to lose connection with the material world
-mixture of Christian moral code, with reincarnation and belief in contact with spirits of the dead. Imported to Brazil at turn of the century

73
Q

Who was Dr. Fritz?

A

the name of the spirit that overtook Maricio Malgalhaes (medium)

74
Q

Who was Maricio Malgalhaes?

A

spirit medium of Dr. Fritz (Dr. Fritz takes over his body during operations). German doctor who died in 1917. Only has a fourth grade education, does all of his work for free. All surgeries were done without antiseptics or anesthetics and were believed to be administered by spirits.

75
Q

___ patients were treated for a total of ____ illnesses

A

40 patients
60 illnesses

76
Q

What is the EEA?
What is conformity?
What is an example of conformity?

A

ENVIRONMENT OF EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTION: period of time during photo-humans and into archaic-homosapiens that our species was EVOLVING
Including:
- the conditions we were living in: in Africa
- hot, living off of plants, tight areas-at this time the groups who could reach consensus and take action were the ones to survive and pass down their genes

Conformity is when individuals detect and prefer the central tendency (meaning they are more likely to CONFORM or adopt a particular behavior or decision based on what everyone else is doing.)

Examples of conformity:
-Corsets in the 19th century
-Chinese foot binding
-Trypanosome Parasite/Chagas disease (Men ate a beetle because it had sexual benefits even though they knew it was host to a parasite that would cause Chagas disease)
-Aztec tooth carving

77
Q

What was Dr. Fritz success rate?

A

about 70%

78
Q

How many patients of Dr. Fritz said they experienced pain?

A

out of 34, only 9 said they had pain (2 severe)

79
Q

What were the emotions of Dr. Fritz’s patients?

A

Roughly half said were calm, relaxed, fine confident. Other half were nervous, tense, frightened anxious. This had no effect on treatment outcome.

80
Q

What types of illnesses did Dr Fritz’s treatment not help?

A

Asymptomatic illnesses such as blindness or paralyzation

81
Q

Dr. Fritz’s surgeries tended to do better with patients with _______ illnesses

A

Long-term & highly symptomatic

ex: headaches, angina, back pain, ulcers

82
Q

overall response to treatments by Dr. Fritz were ______ % positive and about 70% saw improvement or were cured

A

80-95

83
Q

Dr. Fritz Evidence of post operative infections

A

11 out of 40 said they felt worst after treatment, but got better the days following

84
Q

What is perispirit?

A

a connector between spiritual body and physical body

85
Q

What was the ritual prep for Dr. Fritz patients?

A

-positive social interactions
-no fired food/ soft drinks
-bathe in rock salt or white rose petals (Aids in belief and brings aligns spirit and body)

86
Q

What is symbolic healing?

A

-taking shamanism to a modern population
-mind over body “placebo effect”

87
Q

universal rules for symbolic healing

A
  1. patient has to accept mythic world of healing
  2. patient has to believe their illness can be healed in this context
  3. patient must be convinced the healer can help
  4. healer manipulates symbols in this world to mythic world (to show signs of change)
88
Q

Does Dr Fritz guarantee any results?

A

No

89
Q

What was the placebo effect?

A

the power of the mind to affect change in the body

  • 55% of pain reducing response can be explained by this
90
Q

Adaptation

A

any trait or condition that maximizes an organisms ability to meet its basic physiological needs and successfully reproduce

91
Q

functionalism

A

cultural traits generally have an adaptive function, long history in social science

-ex: Ayhuasca and intestinal parasites; the Hopi people moved to high mesas due to nomadic groups that were aggressive and invading their territory

92
Q

What is the adaptationist trap?

A

the tendency to see everything as adaptive (meaning that they think every genetic trait evolved for a specific reason or purpose), over-use of functionalism; “just so stories” (in other words, stories trying to explain why the leopard has spots—each trait developed for a specific function)

93
Q

some traits are simply __________

A

Neutral

94
Q

What was Ozborn and Skeletal remains?

A

Example of adaptationist trap. He saw hypocalcemia (lack of calcium in remains) and attributed shell lining in cooking pots as an adaptive response. Was very wrong.

95
Q

What was Aztec cannibalism?

A

Harris - Believes aztec cannibalism occured due to a lack of protein in their diet

Ortz de Montellano - disputed Harris’ claims. No archeological evidence shows protein deficiency. Public rarely participated in cannibalism - was ritual. Lots of sources of protein in their diets.

96
Q

maladaptive behaviors

A

any behavior which brings harm, retards, or reduces an organism’s ability to meet its physiological needs and/or successfully reproduce

-ex: subincision
-ex: Tapirape of Central Brazil and Post partum sexual taboos; polyandry (one woman has multiple husbands)

97
Q

What are Maladaptive behaviors?
What is an example of a maladaptive behavior?

A

-behaviors which bring HARM, or reduces an organism’s ability to meet physiological needs, and/ or reproduce

Ex. sub-incision
-Puberty ritual among some pre-contact Australian aboriginal groups where the bottom of the penis is slit open
-not necessary
-hinders ability to reproduce

98
Q

What is conformity?

A

-to detect or prefer the central tendency (TO CONFORM to what everyone else is doing)
-natural selection has embedded in us the need to conform
-one of the basic cognitive design elements
-causes maladaptive behaviors

99
Q

Conformity - How do Immediate results outweigh longterm consequences

A

-ex: corsets indicate high status, so women wore them, even though they were uncomfortable.
-ex: Chinese foot binding (tie feet backwards and warps the way they grow); want small feet to indicate status and are willing to endure the pain to have them.
-ex. Trypanasome parasite was eaten by men to increase sex drive but in turn gave them Chagas disease
-ex. Aztec teeth carving indicated high status of warriors but caused nonfunctional teeth and infection

100
Q

subsistence patterns

A

-hunting and gathering
-horticulture
-pastoralism
-transhumance
-agriculture

101
Q

What are the 4 sociopolitical types?

A

-bands (common unit of share usually between 1,2, or 3 extended families

-tribes

-chiefdom

-state

102
Q

What are some facts about hunter-gatherers (foragers)?

A

-primarily associated with BAND-level societies
-they lived in SMALL groups, related along kinship lines
-they were FREE-RANGING, autonomous (did not depend on government)
-no longer in existence
-99% of human existence spent at band level
-EGALITARIAN (not born with status), they earned their status, instead of being born to a status.
-“primus inter pares” (First among equals)

103
Q

What are some facts about tribes?

A

-sociopolitical type
-greater number than band, but varies in size
-multiple settlements
-multiple kin groups, clans (Huron, Attingnawatan)
-primarily achieved status but some ascribed (hereditary)
-mostly horticultural or pastoral
-mostly animism (believed that everything has a soul, including objects, places and even some words), plus some animatism (believed that living and non-living objects have a soul)
-highest death rate from warfare

104
Q

animatism

A

the belief that a single abstract force that humans can tap in to through ritual that makes them “better”

105
Q

proximate causes

A

immediate, most apparent causes of warfare

-today we fight over resources, ideological differences, and political autonomy
-tribes fought for revenge and status

106
Q

ultimate causes

A

underlying cause of warfare

-does not mean superior to proximate causes
-not conscious behavior
-xenophobia

107
Q

Hunter Gatherer Myths

A

-“man the hunter”
-“driven by hunger”
-“hard life”

108
Q

subsistence types

A

pastoralism, transhumance, horticulture, and agriculture are all ______

109
Q

pastoralism

A

usually refer to nomadic, primary food is livestock, sheep, goats, cattle, and milk

-ex: West African Milk and blood

110
Q

transhumance

A

still pastoralists but seasonal migrations only

-ex: Swiss Alps with always horticulture and sometimes agriculture
-certain time there are dry spells and they must forage for resources

111
Q

horticulture

A

small back-yard garden farming with very simple hand-held tools usually slash and burn and move on, no mechanization (animals, irrigation, etc.), no surplus production, for group consumption only

-ex: Huron

112
Q

agriculture

A

mechanized with surplus and storage, massive expansion of the lands carrying capacity=breeds dependency, but allows for larger surplus

113
Q

What are some facts about a Chiefdom?

A

-sociopolitical type

greater population, density and social stratification(classes), usually agricultural

-composed of more than one tribe, with many clans and centralized power, ex: Mississippian Culture= Cahokia
-must have surplus, which is redistributed by CHIEF/king
-no symbolic monetary system
-often has trade network
-some ascribed status
-limited cast system
-little craft specialization
-no mercenaries or conscription

114
Q

state

A

-sociopolitical type

-defn: highly stratified, always has agriculture, similar to chiefdom but larger scale and much more stratified
-much greater population
-based on market economy with symbolic monetary system
-status largely ascribed
-full-time, professional army
-very high diversity of craft specialization and caste system
-advanced, often symbolic, monetary system shared by entire state
-must have writing and advanced system of records: taxes

115
Q

Aztecs (Mexica)

A

-example of a state
-dense population
-Cortez
-Tenochtitlan (island where things were run)
-Chinampas
-sewer system

116
Q

nobles, professionals, commoners, slaves

A

what are the four social classes

117
Q

4 Social Classes:
What are some facts about nobles?

A

-in caste system
-ex. king and queen
-tlatoani: governors of different provinces; hereditary (born into nobility)
-Pochteca - different form of noble - Ambassadors or traveling merchants and spies - could declare war - was the only type of nobility you could earn your way into

118
Q

What were the pochteca?

A

-known as nobles
-the only way people born outside of the noble class could earn noble status
-must do something extraordinary (war hero)
-traveling merchants and military spies

119
Q

4 social classes:
Who were the professionals?

A

-in caste system
-tolteca: artists and crafters
-ticitl: doctors
-priests

120
Q

4 social classes:
Who were the commoners?

A

-in caste system
-macehual: land based farmers
-mayeque: landless, tenant farmers, paid wage

121
Q

slaves

A

-in caste system
-form of punishment
-sold themselves into it

122
Q

military

A

-cross-cuts all social classes
-purpose: to maintain tribute system
-goal: to capture of captives for sacrifice

123
Q

Tzompantli

A

skull racks

124
Q

the hurons economy was based on ….

A

horticulture

125
Q

The huron book had sources such as…

A

jesuitt priests, Champlain (explorer/soldier), Gabriel Siggard (most reliable source)

126
Q

Where did the Huron live and what was the weather like?

A

southern ontario, cold

it was an area between lakes and rivers so the soil was productive, but because the climate only allowed a small amount of time during the year to make crops

127
Q

a house where a clan of hurons (extended family) lived

A

longhouses

128
Q

huron lived in ______ settlements for better defense

A

fortified

129
Q

women spent most time in the ______ (domestic sphere) while men in the _____ (non domestic sphere) in the huron society

A

clearing, forests

130
Q

75% of the hurons diet was horticulture. their main crop was ______

A

corn

131
Q

T or F: Men would clear the fields while women planted, cared for and harvested crops in the huron society

A

TRUE

132
Q

What are the three reasons the huron would go to war?

A

revenge, prestige/status, religion

133
Q

sakien

A

this term spoken by the huron literally meant “sit down”

-ultimately ment you were surrounded and either had to surrender, run or fight

134
Q

T or F: women in childbirth would not be allowedto cry out in pain in the huron society

A

TRUE

135
Q

T or F: couples did not space out timing between having children in the huron society

A

FALSE

136
Q

true or false: premarrital sex was often encouraged in the huron society

A

FALSE

137
Q

T or F: public affection was often shown in huron society

A

FALSE

138
Q

courtship ritual

A

Regarding the huron…

  1. man makes case to family to ask to give their daughter a gift
  2. if she accepts, he lives with her for some time (trial marriage)
  3. if it doesn’t work out, the women can keep the gift and the man would be kicked out
139
Q

T or F: divroces were common inthe huron society, and when this happened, the man would just move backin with his mom

A

TRUE

140
Q

T or F: the huron may have switched from a patrilineal to matrilineal society due to warfare. this was identified because all the pottery was the same style for matrilineal(women make pottery and keep) but different styles for patrilineal (women giving gifts to mans family)

A

TRUE

141
Q

witch craft

A

Regarding the huron…

-caused by jealousy
-treated like war captives (tortured and killed)
-strongest social sanction
-to deem someone as this, you needed a chiefs approval
-suspicion was created by wealth, agressiveness towards neighbors,and not attending village events

142
Q

soul desires

A

Regarding the Huron

-revealed in dreams
-no shame in them
-community granted them to prevent illness and death
-interpreted by shawman
-a way the society gave something back

143
Q

chinampas

A

-a characteristic of Aztec culture
-‘floating gardens’
-an argument to why the Aztecs were not canibals

144
Q

where are the Basseri from?

A

southern Iran

145
Q

t or f: the basseri were nomadic

A

TRUE

146
Q

il-rah

A

-the term use for the basseris ‘tribal road’ and is considered that tribes property

147
Q

what provides the bulk of subsictence products for the basseri? (main crop)? which also provide milk and milk products

A

sheep and goats

148
Q

t or f: basseri depend on hunting large sport for food

A

false, their main source is sheep and goat

149
Q

each nuclear family of the basseri lives in a ___ ____

A

single tent

150
Q

in the basseri tribe, is the one that leads in dealings outside the family male or female?

A

male (husband/father or senior male)

151
Q

egalitarianism

A

the idea that all people have equal rights

152
Q

true or false: in the domestic domain (within the household) the basseri leader is typically female

A

TRUE

153
Q

the basseri are _______, meaning upon marriage, a couple starts their own nuclear family in a new tent

A

neolocal

154
Q

t or f: men pay bride-prices in the basseri culture

A

TRUE

155
Q

t or f: there must be an agreement among tents in the basseri in order for dissolution to happentr

A

TRUE

156
Q

t or f: marriages are arranged in the basseri

A

TRUE

157
Q

t or f: distance between basseri tents does not indicate anything

A

false (indicates social distance between occupants)

158
Q

headman

A

-basseri
-links in the chain of communication of the chief

159
Q

the basseri economy depends largely on their…..

A

livestock

160
Q

t or false: the basseri are shiah muslims and practice Islam in a less formal manner

A

TRUE

161
Q

sexual activity is ______ before marriage for the basseri

A

forbidden

162
Q

t or f: the ju.’Hoansi horticulturists

A

false, hunter gatherers

163
Q

where, in general, are the ju’hoansi from?

A

southern Africa (near The Dobe Kalahari desert)

164
Q

the _____ tribe sleeps with their tents or huts in a circular pattern

A

ju’hoansi

165
Q

t/f: the ju’hoansi can’t ever find food

A

false, they are plentiful in plant food

166
Q

t/f: the JH do not value egalitarianism

A

false (they tend to use it to avoid undue praisefor and individual or accomplishment to keep everyone level headed)

167
Q

t/f: bothe men and women function equally as elders in JH

A

TRUE

168
Q

t/f: the JH can only be given names of their ancestors, and may not marry someone with thr same name as their parent or sibling

A

TRUE

169
Q

the ______ tribe practices ‘marriage-by-capture’ which is when the bride is captured and presented to groom. is she runs away then the marriage often is dissolved. 1/2 of thistribes marriages end in divorce.

A

JH (ju’hoansi)

170
Q

what are the three spheres of conflict for the JH?

A

arguing, fighting, and deadly combat

171
Q

hxaro

A

practiced by the JH, a gift exchange between individuals that is not as immediately returned (a gift will be received by giver in future)

172
Q

who/what is responsible for illness and misfortune in the JH tribe? (death turns people bad)

A

gangwasi

173
Q

which tribe deals with ‘gwah’ and n/um with healers and when they dance it is activated and their soul leaves their body

A

JH (ju’hoansi)

174
Q

t or f: the JH area in which they reside is largely affected by HIV/AIDS, but the women express autonomy and empowerment when rebuffing sexual advances by outsiders especially

A

TRUE

175
Q

which tribe resides in the northern Midwestern US and south central Canada?

A

ojibwa

176
Q

t/f:ojibwa were heavily involved in fur trade

A

TRUE

177
Q

this tribe tended to move with the seasons and were active traders, hunters and gatherers

A

ojibwa

178
Q

true or false: Ojibwa marriage ceremonies were elaborate and marriages were monogamous, and the society was patrilineal

A

false (all correct but marriage was not elaborate)

179
Q

in this tribe, the power held by chief was derived from their function as a trade rep

A

ojibwa

180
Q

this tribe
-most power remained in the healers
-after an animal was killed it was honored
- belief in animate and inanimate objects

A

ojibwa

181
Q

this tribes religion involved the belief that you receive your blessings and gifts in dreams delivered by the “grandfathers”. fasting during this time was encouraged.

-shaking of the tent: the diviner calls upon the “pawaganak” or their guardians, to ask what treatment for illness should be given to loved one

A

ojibwa

182
Q

Midewiwin

A

-the Ojibwa society of men and women that use herbs and plants to cure illness

183
Q

what is a dietary staple and cash crop for the Ojibwa?

A

wild rice

184
Q

What was the first evidence of burying the dead?

A

Neanderthal burials

185
Q

What causes Harris lines?

A

Malnutrition

186
Q

What are examples of discovery?

A
  • ex: microwave energy, pasteurization: food safety, fermentation, oil, nuclear energy, DNA, etc…
187
Q

Why are cultural traits adopted?

A

Relative advantage and compatibility