ANTH Exam 2 Review 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH Exam 2 Review 1 Deck (63)
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1
Q

What is any cultural trait or institution that is found in all societies or cultures?

A

Human Universals -

2
Q

What is basic survival, subsistence, language, protection, enculturation, etc… ? (All humans have basic needs. They can be addressed in different ways)

A

Similar set of needs and problems -

3
Q

What is to teach them the rules and expectations for your culture for survival purposes?

A

Enculturate -

4
Q

What are laws, or ways to maintain order?

A

Sociopolitical Rules -

5
Q

Are medical systems a human universal?

A

Yes; all countries have developed some sort of medical system -

6
Q

What is our place in the universe/ Belief systems?

A

Expect the unknown -

7
Q

What are biological Constraints, prolonged dependency of children, language acquisition, and sexual dimophism?

A

Common Biological Ancestry -

8
Q

Describe the prolonged Dependency of Children

A

It takes us along time to become independent. Longer now then it has been in the past, at least High School if not much longer.
EX: Horses are running around within an hour, humans takes years. -

9
Q

How long does language acquisition take?

A

Takes many years, limits children from contributing. -

10
Q

What is the term for male and female bodies are different and suited for different tasks?

A

Sexual Dimorphism -

11
Q

Why is there a division of labor?

A

because of sexual dimorphism -
Men typically hunted (because they tend to have greater upper body strength), women gathered

12
Q

What was the division of labor and hunting?

A

Women nursed babies (in the past would last multiple years) -

13
Q

Describe the Catharine Marsh Study:

A

The study of animal’s reactions to women’s menstrual blood. Herbivores would run away. Larger carnivores would react with aggression -

14
Q

What is the term for females being able to produce babies for a certain amount of time. Men can till they die?

A

Menopause -
Theory that men should try to father as many children as possible with as little work and resources as they can (quantity). Women should have very few children and concentrate their resources into those few children (quality).

15
Q

Describe the Quantity vs quality theory “Sociobiology”

A

Both parents couldn’t follow a quantity style or there wouldn’t be enough investment in the children. -

16
Q

What made the prolonged dependency of children possible?

A

The quantity vs quality theory -

17
Q

Describe the Loss of Estrus (Cycle)

A

Human females are the only mammals with concealed ovulation. Almost all mammals besides humans are aware when they are ovulating, including the males. This would lead to an Alpha male system-> Only that one male would mate and the species would fail over time from inbreeding. Evolutionary system for this is women ovulate at the same time (cycles get in sync), then the Alpha male can’t be everywhere at once. At some point in the past women lost estrus and it our knowledge of when we are ovulating is now concealed which has destroyed any alpha male system. Puts reproduction in the hands of females and now men must compete for women, this creates greater intimacy (start of love b/w sexes). -

18
Q

Describe the Insecure male theory, “Cuckoldry”:

A

uncertain if the child is really theirs, males are sticking around and getting married to make sure the child is theirs. Concealed ovulation makes males question maternity and creates competition between males and females; making sure of no infidelity -

19
Q

What means your wife is messing around with another man?

A

Cuckoldry -

20
Q

What allows for greater intimacy, allows for the investment of time allowed for prolonged dependency of children, cause of marriage, and cause of the destruction of the alpha male system?

A

Loss of estrus -

21
Q

What is the origin of love?

A

loss of estrus -

22
Q

Describe Ruth Benedict’s “Blank Slate” or “Empty Cup” Theory:

A

Humans are like an empty cup or blank slate at birth and anything is possible -

23
Q

Who came up with the “empty cup” or “blank slate” theory?

A

Ruth Benedict -

24
Q

What is being able to corporate and reach an agreement you’re more likely to survive in the past?

A

Conformity -

25
Q

What is the more able to survive you have more offspring and their offspring are able to survive better too?

A

Evolutionary -

26
Q

What are the 2 cognitive design elements?

A
  1. detect and prefer the central tendency (conformity)
  2. trust the familiar, distrust the foreign (xenophobia) -
27
Q

What causes detecting and preferring the central tendency?

A

evolution and conformity -

28
Q

What is the cause of war, aggression, slavery, chimpanzees (attacking and killing other groups of chimps), non-linguistic universals?

A

Distrust of the foreign -

29
Q

What shows that humans are “naturally aggressive”?

A

We love aggressive movies, such as action and war movies, the most and the business world is aggressive -

30
Q

Culture can Override what?

A

Things we may think of universal -

31
Q

Who was Shepper-Hughes and what did she learn about the Anjinhos?

A

She worked in poor area of Brazil, Favellas (high infant mortality) idea that there are Anjinhos or “little angels” that are born, but not meant to live -> neglected and not really cared for. Believed that caring for them or naming them would impede their return to heaven. Most the babies that are victims of this are frail or weak, and parents may not want to put too many resources into the child if they do not think it will live. Mother infant bonding can be delayed in areas

32
Q

What is an example of the idea of mother/ infant bonding being universal being over rode by culture?

A

-Mother/infant bonding won’t happen until they know the child will survive - Like with the anijinhos in Brazil

33
Q

What are “shanty towns” called?

A

Favellas -

34
Q

What people have a “Tribal level society”, where gentleness is the norm? (Aggressive actions are shunned and teased, teamwork and modesty is rewarded, conflict and anger must be negotiated, men cannot show any aggression, little contact, gentle and non-aggressiveness, and ridiculed if displaying anger or conflict)

A

Semai people of Malaysia -

35
Q

What are found in favelas in Brazil, children weren’t supposed to be on Earth, were believed to be angels and used this to excuse for their deaths?

A

Anjinhos -

36
Q

Is observation and mimicry explicitly taught?

A

no -

37
Q

What is the process of the acquisition of culture, learned/taught?

A

Enculturation. -

38
Q

What are the Four Avenues of Enculturation?

A
  1. Observation and mimicry
  2. Emulation of model Behavior
  3. Technical instructions
  4. Conditioning -
39
Q

What are the fictive agents “imaginary characters (boogey man)”?

A

o Santa Clause-> bring a lump of coal to bad kids…
o Every culture has a different fictive agent(s)
o Brazil=Acuca-> Alligator with wings
o Lynch childhood- the knotman? Will get kids who won’t go to bed. -

40
Q

Where is most observation and mimicry most prominent?

A

Ages 0-6, young because most children are very absorbent and watch everything around them
(kids are about 40 times better at learned languages, kids can even pick up on grammar rules) -

41
Q

Where is most emulation of model behavior most prominent?

A

older kids, 6-7 years old -

42
Q

What is emulation of model behavior?

A

Kids emulating behavior from older brother/sisters, TV characters, action figures, dolls, etc -

43
Q

What are technical instructions?

A

special skills that are explicitly taught in school -

44
Q

What is conditioning?

A

Positive or negative sanctions
(Rewards vs. punishment) -

45
Q

What is the term for the same basic needs, different solutions?

A

Subsistence -

46
Q

What are the 5 subsistence needs?

A
  1. Energy
  2. Protein
  3. Vitamins
  4. Fats
  5. Water -
47
Q

What is a caloric deficiency disease caused by lack of food? (makes you scrawny and bony)

A

Marasmus -

48
Q

What is a protein deficiency disease that causes a protruding stomach, bugged eyes, and open sores from a lack of protein?

A

Kwashiorkor -

49
Q

What is caused from a lack of thyamine?

A

BeriBeri disease -

50
Q

How many calories do adult humans need in a day?

A

Need about 2000 calories a day -

51
Q

How much protein is needed for an adult human a day?

A

Needs 1 Gram of protein per day per kilogram of body weight -

52
Q

What is protein needed for in a human?

A

Needed for skeleton growth (very important for kids) -

53
Q

What can lack of vitamin A cause?

A

blindness -

54
Q

How is human language unique among animals primarily in its complexity? (primates)

A

you can teach them signs, but they can not learn the verbal language -

55
Q

Why do humans need fats?

A

• Thermal regulation
• Energy storage -

56
Q

What is the purpose of water for humans?

A

• Regulates chemical reactions in our body
• Helps with digestion -

57
Q

What is contaminated water that causes extreme dehydration quickly, and Intestinal parasites?

A

Cholera -

58
Q

What were Indian groups that would herd “grasshoppers” into nets, and fold them up and roast them?

A

Great Basin Groups -

59
Q

Why did the Great basin groups eat grass hoppers?

A

There were times with scarce game, so they substituted protein with grasshoppers -

60
Q

What group of people dealt with food difficulties due to climate by capturing seabirds and fermenting them to create sausage?

A

The Eskimo/Athabascans -

61
Q

Why did the Eskimos and Athabascans capture and eat sea birds?

A

They needed food that could be stored over time -

62
Q

How did the Eskimos keep seabirds for 6 months?

A

Sea birds were abundant during one time of the year when they would catch them and stuff the whole bird in seal intestine and seal them off (could be kept for 6 months). -

63
Q

What group of people had water shortages, sheep, goats, cows, and drank blood and milk?

A

Pastoralists -