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Flashcards in ANTH Exam 2 - Review 2 Deck (40)
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1
Q

How is human language is unique among animals primarily in its complexity? (Champec)

A

Most successful at learning signs-> learned over 500 signs
Had baby and taught here 55 signs with no human interactions -

2
Q

What are the Four primary attributes of language?

A
  1. Tremendous intraspecific Diversity
  2. Language is based on symbols
  3. Multiplicity of patterning
  4. Displacement -
3
Q

What is the ability to refer to something that is not immediately present or even abstract? (such as Heaven or Hell)

A

Displacement -

4
Q

What is the smallest unit of a language?

A

Phonemes -

5
Q

How many different phonemes are in the English language?

A

42 -

6
Q

What are the smallest units of language which have a semantic meaning?

A

Morphemes -

7
Q

What are the 2 types of morphemes?

A
  1. free
  2. bound -
8
Q

What is an example of a free morpheme ?

A

a word such as girl or boy that is not dependent -

9
Q

What is an example of a bound morpheme?

A

must be bound to a free morpheme (such as “s”) -

10
Q

What is the ability to combine and recombine a limited number of phonemes into billions of combinations in order to express thoughts?

A

Multiplicity of patterning -

11
Q

What is intraspecific communication?

A

the interchange or transmission of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs from one member of a species to another member of the same species.

12
Q

How diverse is intraspecific communication among humans?

A

Tremendous intraspecific diversity -
- humans communicate in thousands of languages

13
Q

What is intraspecific communication among animals?

A

o Animals have one common language that exists over geographic areas

14
Q

In social scenes, what is the only safe place to touch a woman?

A

above the elbow. Other types of touching are not acceptable.

15
Q

What are gestures, volume, and repetition that is the meaning beyond the word spoken?

A

Linguistic frames -
(for example, how a parent speaks to a child)

16
Q

What is word order (that varies from one language to the next)?

A

syntax -

17
Q

What are the 2 broad avenues about non verbal communication?

A

proxemics and kinesics -

18
Q

What is the study of the use of space, both private and public, both between cultures and within cultures?

A

Proxemics -

19
Q

In the US, what is the approximate amount of personal space?

A

3 feet -

20
Q

What is the approximate amount of greeting space in the US?

A

20-12 feet -

21
Q

What is the process through which we perceive and process information?

A

Cognition -

22
Q

What is an example of cognition?

A

folk taxonomies and monolexemic color terms -

23
Q

What is the study of body language, how people use the body and the info they convey, and is highly situation/status dependent?

A

Kinesics -

24
Q

What affects kinesics?

A

marriage, gender, clothes organizational membership, age, wealth, status, situation -

25
Q

What is an example of how touching between adults to children vs adults to adults is different?

A

Adults pick up kids and swing them around, ruffle kid’s hair, and hug them when they just met which they would never do to another adult -

26
Q

What is a hierarchical system of classification of phenomena?

A

Taxonomy -

27
Q

What is an example of taxonomy?

A

Vehicle: Can thing that carries people from one place to another->then can break it down more specific by a lot-> Land, water, space-> truck, car, SUV -

28
Q

What is an example of kinesics being situation dependent?

A

grown men slapping each other’s butts during football, would not be appropriate in other situations -

29
Q

What is a lexeme?

A

The fundamental unit of the lexicon (vocabulary) of a language.
Ex. Find, finds, found, and finding are forms of the English lexeme find.

30
Q

What is polysemy?

A

When a symbol, word, or phrase can mean many different things.
Ex. The verb “get” — it can mean “procure” (I will go and get it), “become” (I get tired when I run), or “understand” (Do you get it?)

31
Q

What are two or more words that belong to more than one category? (you can get a lot more specific)

A

Polyexemically -

32
Q

What is an example of polyexemically?

A

plant taxonomy and domain of snow and ice for eskimos -

33
Q

Describe plant taxonomy?

A

o Unique beginner (everyone can tell a animal from a tree)
o Life form (tree, bush, grass…) — We really don’t go any further than this but people who are dependent on the environment will go further
o Generic (oak, vs cedar, vs spruce)
o Specific (white oak vs red oak)
o Varietal (red oak vs red scrub oak) -

34
Q

Why were there differences in the light patterns in different cultures?

A

dependence on the environment -

35
Q

What does monolexemic mean?

A

Consisting of a single lexeme.

36
Q

What are the 2 monolexemic criteria?

A
  1. Cannot be subsumed into a larger category (eg. Vehicle.)
  2. Wide applicability, can be used to refer to many things -
37
Q

What are eleven monolexemic terms to classify colors on light spectrum in English?

A

Light spectrum basic colors - ‘black’, ‘white’, ‘red’, ‘green’, ‘yellow’, ‘blue’, ‘brown’, ‘orange’, ‘pink’, ‘purple’, and ‘grey’
–not specific like light green or forest green, just green

38
Q

How many monolexemic terms are there to classify colors on the light spectrum?

A

11 -

39
Q

What colors are found in all cultures?

A

black and white -

40
Q

Why are there differences in patterns of colors in different cultures?

A

Dependence on environment -