ANTH Exam 2 - Review 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH Exam 2 - Review 4 Deck (57)
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1
Q

What are the 3 lines of kinship?

A

Cross-cultural studies:
1. Consanguineal
2. Affinal
3. Fictive -

2
Q

What is marrying within one’s own group>usually social group?

A

Endogamy -

3
Q

What type of kinship is blood-related? ( ie. Father, mother, brother, sister)

A

Consanguineal -

4
Q

What type of kinship is by marriage? (ie. Brother in law, mother in law ect…)

A

Affinal -

5
Q

What is the father’s line?

A

Patrilineal -

6
Q

What is the mother’s line?

A

Matrilineal -

7
Q

What type of kinship is clan with fictitious ancestor through line are traced?

A

Fictive -
(Trace blood lines back through single male or female, but too much time has gone by to know if it is true)

8
Q

What are both blood lines?

A

Bilateral -

9
Q

What kin term has one word for cousin, uncle, aunt ? (Very ambiguous terms, don’t tell you gender or what side of the family they are one)

A

Our system- “Eskimo system” -

10
Q

What kin term has all individuals in parental generation are mother and father, all in 2nd generation are brother and sister ect.?

A

Simplest- “Native Hawaiians:” -

11
Q

What kin term has a different word for each type of cousin, aunt, uncle, and their offspring, different word for everyone all the way up to great grandparents?

A

Most complicated (Sudanese) -

12
Q

What did Lewis Henry Morgan believe about Anthropology in the early 19th century?

A

Anthropology is a science and religion has no place -

13
Q

What did E.B Tyler believe about anthropology in the early 19th century?

A

He focused on religion and developed evolutionary schemes -

14
Q

What are E.B. Tyler’s evolutionary schemes?

A
  1. Animism
  2. Animitism
  3. Polytheism
  4. Monotheism -
15
Q

Describe the Avunculocal residence:

A

Pater & Genitor are different, eg. Crow Indians. Pater-not genetic father, genitor-genetic father. After 4-6 years, kid moves away to live with mothers brother -

16
Q

Are the Trobriand Islanders matrilineal or patrilineal?

A

Matrilineal, no word for genetic father. They have a word that means mother’s husband. -

17
Q

What is the belief that everything (environment) is alive. If you take something you must give something back?

A

Animism -

18
Q

What is the belief in a single abstract force that humans can tap into through ritual activity, can give humans power, search for medicine?

A

Animitism -

19
Q

What is the belief in a constellation of gods and goddesses; normally responsible for things in the environment. (sea god, tree god…)?

A

Polytheism -

20
Q

What is the belief in one god (E.B. Tyler’s own views)?

A

Monotheism -

21
Q

What did Bronislaw Malinowski believe about religion?

A

1.Primitive=magic
2.Civilized= religion (contemporary)
3.Future=science. Believed science would take over for religion (Malinowski’s own view) -

22
Q

What did Bronislaw believe primitive people believed in?

A

magic -

23
Q

What did Bronislaw believe civilized people believed in?

A

religion -

24
Q

What did Bronislaw believe the future people will believe in?

A

science -

25
Q

Who believed science would take over for religion?

A

Bronislaw Malinowski -

26
Q

What is animism, animatism & some polytheism (manipulation of things, such as making it rain, or gaining strength…)?

A

Magic -

27
Q

What is supplication of the supernatural done to manipulate the environment or the circumstances to make things go the way the human group wants them to go?

A

Magic -

28
Q

What is artwork of what they predicted/wanted reality to look like “technology of the sacred”?

A

Sympathetic magic -

29
Q

What is more concerned with explanations of phenomena, especially creation & humans place in the world?

A

Polytheism & Monotheism -

30
Q

What is based on empirical observations & hypothesis testing and enables us to predict and explain phenomenons?

A

Science -

31
Q

What is in “primitive” societies, still based on empirical observation and hypothesis testing?

A

Ethnoscience -

32
Q

What are examples of ethnoscience?

A

-medicinal plants
-navigation in the pacific (lapita culture)
-Wufanu (star courses structured into rhyme) -

33
Q

How are medicinal plants an example of ethnoscience?

A

Societies knowledge is impressive and very effective; lots of modern medicines are based from plants and knowledge is from primitive groups -

34
Q

How is navigation in the pacific (Lapita culture) and example of ethnoscience?

A

Culture origins in mainland Asia (pottery), the spread of their pottery over a 3000-year time period. Traveling thousands of miles away, before any Europeans did or were even close to. Traveled in long canoes. They used triangular sails. No instruments but had Wufanu. -

35
Q

How is Wufanu an example of ethnoscience?

A

star courses structured into rhyme. In the rhymes, there were descriptions of islands to go along with stars. -

36
Q

How are “sea marks”—sea swells an example of ethnoscience?

A

People could tell how far land may be in a direction. Color of sea can indicate depth. Sea birds helps to indicate where land is. -

37
Q

Who believes when a particular action is important to a society, yet it is risky and the outcome is uncertain, then there will be ritual and magic associated with it?

A

Describe Malinowski’s Hypothesis -

38
Q

Risk and uncertainty = what?

A

ritual & magic -

39
Q

What are examples of risk and uncertainty= ritual and magic ?

A
  • Malinowski’s trobriand islanders= lagoon vs open sea
    -Urubu, forest is asleep
    -Crow, medicine, and 2 leggings
    -Huron warfare and satisfaction of the soul’s desires
    -Dr. Fritz and health -
40
Q

Describe Malinowski’s Trobriand islanders= Lagoon vs. Open sea:

A
  • they have ritual activity in lagoon
  • tons of ritual activity at sea-> very risky and uncertainty -
41
Q

How is Urubu, forest is asleep an example of rituals and magic?

A

They must wake the forest up every morning by doing particular rituals -

42
Q

How is Baseball magic an example of risk and uncertainty= ritual and magic?

A

George Gmelch. (Pro ball player and anthologist) He did a lot of sports rituals and had superstitions. He counted ritual activities, on the field batting and pitching had a lot of ritualistic things because they are the most uncertain and risky parts of the game -

43
Q

Describe Protestantism versus Catholicism:

A

Time of great social change. Rise of merchant class (middle class for 1st time in Europe). They could now read and wanted to read the bible, Catholicism did not allow just anyone to read the bible. -

44
Q

Explain how Yabilh Chakular is an example of religion functioning to control behavior?

A

Yabilh chakular- Concept of limited good; “witch” that punishes those whom hoard wealth

Guatemala witch of sorts who would come to those who hoard wealth. Villages would try to keep everyone with the same amount of wealth. Keeps people from hoarding wealth and makes them share -

45
Q

What functions to help us through bad times, reconcile loss, failure & death?

A

Religion being based on faith -

46
Q

What are the fundamental principles of religion?

A
  1. Based on faith
  2. Reflection of the human life cycle
  3. Reflection of the social order
  4. Functions to control behavior -
47
Q

Humans tend to anthropomorphize our deities. True or false?

A

True. -

48
Q

What is an example of a religion being a reflection of the human life cycle?

A

Huitzilopochtli: #1 god of Aztecs. Product of a virgin birth. Virgin birth are said to be divine. Divine characters in religions follow basic human life cycle: crazy birth, fall, then rebuild back up -

49
Q

Describe Peggy Sanday’s findings from her book:

A

In cultures where women play important role in the economy you have more females in the religion of the group. Eskimos most important deity is ________ the god of animals, women do a lot in this culture and so their god reflects that. -

50
Q

Who wrote a book about female power/ male dominance and protestantism vs Catholicism?

A

Peggy Sanday -

51
Q

Explain how Elephantiasis in India is an example of religion functioning to control behavior:

A

Caused by disease called elephantiasis, causes tons of swelling. Caused by microscopic worm spread from one person to the next. Natives think it is caused by divine punishment. Physically kicked out of your own house.

Latent function: keeps from the spreading of the disease -

52
Q

How is the verse “The meek shall inherit the earth” an example of religion functioning to control behavior?

A

be quiet in this lifetime and your real reward is in the next life (heaven). Submit to secular authority -

53
Q

How is the Spanish inquisition an example of religion functioning to control behavior?

A

Not everyone burned was really a witch. Very selective on who was accused to be a witch -

54
Q

How is enculturation an example of religion functioning to control behavior?

A

term for people teaching their kids the ideas of heaven and hell -

55
Q

What is the blending of different religions?

A

Religious syncretism -

56
Q

What are multiple religions of individuals spiritual richening?

A

Religious pluralism -

57
Q

What can be defined as the employment of more than one medical system or the use of both conventional and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for health and illness?

A

Medical pluralism -