ANTH Exam 2 - Review 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH Exam 2 - Review 3 Deck (60)
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1
Q

What is a socially defined or recognized position within the group?

A

Status -

2
Q

What is a set of behaviors appropriate to that position?

A

Role -

3
Q

Describe the domain of snow and ice & Eskimo:

A

Eskimos have a better understanding of snow and have developed techniques to detect safely and depth of ice with staff

• We have very few words to describe snow and ice (sleet, freezing rain, snow, ice)
• Eskimos mimic the sound the ice makes when they put their stick in the ground.
• Not very thick sounds hallow
• Produce different verbs for this perfectly -

4
Q

Status can be what or what?

A

Permanent or Temporary
EX:
- citizenship is mostly permanent
-Under 21 is temporary but have different privileges -

5
Q

What are institutionalized rituals sanctioned by societies or social groups to recognize and legitimize your new position?

A

Rites of passage -

6
Q

What is an example of a rite of passage?

A

EX: graduation, marriage ceremonies, frat and sorority “rushes”, puberty in many societies -

7
Q

New status carries both privileges and what?

A

duties
Ex- marriage (can expect support, expected to support your spouse too) -

8
Q

What are two ways of determining status?

A
  1. achieved
  2. ascribed -
9
Q

What is an example of an ascribed status?

A

race, gender, royalty, Taliban (predetermined since birth) -

10
Q

What are African deities disguised as catholic saints?

A

Orixas -

11
Q

Describe Orixas:

A

In Brazil the slaves would appear to be worshiping catholic saints but they were really worshiping their African gods. -

12
Q

What is a biological father goes off to have a “baby” in a tent away from the mother (he would carve a doll and scream like the mother was in labor)?

A

Covade -

13
Q

What are males that live their lives in the role of females; cooked, gathered foods, dressed as women, and they were accepted by their tribes?

A

Berdache -

14
Q

Describe the Caste systems in India- Ranked according to ritual purity:

A
  1. Branhmins- priests
  2. Kshatrivas-
  3. Vaishyas- merchants
  4. Shudras- menial workers
  5. Untouchables -
15
Q

Who were descendants of priests and scholars, ranked the highest?

A

Branhmins -

16
Q

Who were descended from warriors, class 2nd?

A

Kshatrivas -

17
Q

Who were descendants of merchants, ranked 3rd?

A

Vaishyas -

18
Q

Who were descendants of menial workers or artisans, ranked 4th?

A

Shudras -

19
Q

What is the term for the belief that if you were touched by untouchables you would cursed by them; untouchables were limited to very few occupations (picking up trash or leather business), mere touch could cause “pollution”?

A

Untouchables (Dalit) -

20
Q

What is another name for the untouchables?

A

Dalit -

21
Q

What is Brazil’s version of Mardi Gras (that serves as a temporary loss of role or status)?

A

Carnival -
-Last chance to celebrate before lint; people start partying for carnival a month before.
- The whole country participates; there are various types of carnivals.
-The Sabna schools compete with each other to win big prizes, very poor people participate in the Sabna school competitions.

22
Q

What is the US, and the “Open Class System” versus “Life Chances” are chances to fulfill economic prosperity?

A

Class systems -
1. Back in the day class systems were more closed off
2. Money can also influence your class
3. Anyone can become president or rich
4. Individuals born into money have a better chance at education
5. Open with advantages and disadvantages

23
Q

Why is marriage a human universal?

A

it has advantages to both sexes -

24
Q

What are the advantages of marriage for both sexes

A

-legitimizes offspring
-controls sexual behavior
-provides a culture for children
-economic arrangement
-provides rights of inheritance
-a way to cement economic, political, and social alliances between different families -

25
Q

What are 3 Evolutionary Explanations?

A

• Insecure Male theory (Cuckoldry)
• Loss of Estrus Cycle
• Blank Slate or Empty Cup theory

26
Q

What is the loss of estrus cycle theory?

A

-Human females are only mammals with concealed ovulation, among other animals males are aware of ovulation.
-Most mammals are only sexually receptive during ovulation (exp humans & chimps) which leads to an Alpha male system
-To prevent genetic inbreeding with alpha male system, females in proximity ovulate at the same time so one male can’t reproduce with all the females
-evolutionary evidence for humans having an alpha male system because women close to each other ovulate at the same time.
-Human females lost their estrus cycle and took reproduction out of male hands (destroys alpha male system) and makes males compete for women in a continuously sexually receptive society which leads to intimacy and emotional bonding (marriage).

27
Q

What is the Insecure Male theory (Cuckoldry)?

A

Men are completely unsure of ovulation time therefore they have to stick around to make sure they aren’t investing time and resources into another males offspring. Marriage arose as an institution for social guarantee that males weren’t investing in other mens offspring.

28
Q

What was the Blank Slate or Empty Cup Theory?

A

Ruth benedict, myth belief that we are born as a blank slate.
• Not true due to human and behavioral universals

29
Q

What are the types of marriages?

A
  1. monogamy
  2. polygyny
  3. Polyandry -
30
Q

What type of marriage is one man, one woman?

A

Monogamy -

31
Q

What percent of cultures world wide prefer monogamy?

A

25% -

32
Q

What type of marriage has the highest fertility rates and the best health outcomes?

A

Monogamy -

33
Q

What type of marriage is one man, multiple wives?

A

Polygyny -

34
Q

Describe Christianity in the Amazon:

A

Many tribes practice polygyny but also had a lot of practices that limited births, due to low carrying capacity of the Amazon. After Christian missionaries came, women started to have a ton of kids when switched to monogamy -

35
Q

What do the Amazon tribe believe that more wives and children will give you?

A

more power -

36
Q

Only men of status have multiple wives in polygyny cultures. True or false?

A

True -

37
Q

What type of marriage has lower fertility rates?

A

Polygyny -

38
Q

What type of marriage is most common in pastoralist tribes?

A

Polygyny -

39
Q

What percent of cultures world wide prefers Polygyny?

A

71% -

40
Q

What type of marriage is one woman, multiple husbands?

A

Polyandry -

41
Q

What type of marriage has the lowest health and fertility rates?

A

Polyandry -

42
Q

Describe how a group of brothers would handle sharing a wife:

A

Oldest brother would claim the first child and the younger brothers would be next in line -

43
Q

What percent of cultures world wide has polyandry?

A

4% -

44
Q

What kind of cultures would have polyandry?

A

harsh environments, land is scarce -

45
Q

What type of marriage keeps land in the hands of one lineage?

A

Polyandry -

46
Q

What type of marriage has a high bride price (brothers would put their money together to buy a wife)?

A

Polyandry -

47
Q

What type of marriage is it if an older brother dies, younger brother will marry his wife?

A

Levirate -

48
Q

What type of marriage is it if a married daughter dies, a younger daughter will be provided by family?

A

Sororate -

49
Q

What is a levirate marriage really?

A

a marriage between families -

50
Q

What is the term for the bride’s family paying?

A

Dowry -

51
Q

What is the term for the groom’s family paying?

A

Bride Price -

52
Q

What is almost a human universal within nuclear family, however royal families this was not always the case?

A

Incest Taboos -

53
Q

Describe Helen Fisher’s cross-cultural study and hypothesis about divorce:

A

The first extramarital affair is 3-4 years cross-culturally
- Could be evolutionary means for this: Child’s life in the first 4 years is extremely important and mortality rate is dramatically decreased -

54
Q

What are undesirable recessive genes—Health reasons, high infant mortality, even more important in smaller band like peoples?

A

Inbreeding avoidance -

55
Q

What is the term for children who are raised together typically have very little interest sexually or romantically (don’t have to be related)?

A

Familiarity Breed Avoidance -

56
Q

What is an example of familiarity breed avoidance?

A

o EX: Kibbutz: Jewish people who are raised together almost never marry someone in same Kibbutz
o EX: Taiwan: Arranged marriages where girls would come live with boys family at very young age

Prevent disruption of family unit, competition. -

57
Q

What is the purpose of kinship systems?

A

They determine social support, altruistic behavior, and who you can marry -

58
Q

What is marrying out of one’s own group>usually kin group?

A

Exogamy -

59
Q

What are the benefits of exogamy?

A

o Can gain alliances, can spread out genes
o Important for clan organizations -

60
Q

Describe Mating Preferences:

A

-Lots of studies done all over the world
-What traits or attributes males of females want in a mate
-Men prefer youth and beauty and women who exhibit high fidelity; could be symbolic for potential fertility
-Women prefer higher status, higher success potential, stress looks less than men, age ranges are their age or older, interpreted as being able to provide resources to provide for their children
-Attraction and what you want in a potential mate are completely different. -