ANTH 205 - Exam 3 Review (medical anthropology) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH 205 - Exam 3 Review (medical anthropology) Deck (42)
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1
Q

What is the comparative and holistic study of culture’s impact on health and health-seeking behavior?

A

Medical Anthropology -

2
Q

What is one of the most unifying of all of the various subfields because of common interests in culture and health?

A

Interdisciplinary medical anthropology -

3
Q

What is the study of disease and prehistoric populations?

A

Paleopathology -

4
Q

How does a paleopathologist study diseases in the prehistoric populations?

A
  • Skeletal Indicators
    -Cultural Patterns:
  • warfare
  • slavery in ancient Egypt
  • Degenerative knee disease in Eskimos due to dogsledding
  • Lack of Cancer: in pre industrial societies. -
5
Q

Describe the Lack of Cancer in prehistoric populations:

A

cancer only present society –> happens in organs most of the time; symptoms of the past are more along the lines of in the bones, blood cancers, leukemia -

6
Q

What are population factors, settlement changes, age and sex ratios, life expectancy?

A

Paleodemography -

7
Q

What is an example of paleodemography?

A

shift to agriculture = health down. Increase in both infectious disease and episodes of nutritional stress.
- Dickson Mound: site in Illinois.
- Enamel Hypoplasias
- Harris Lines
- Porotic Hyperostosis -

8
Q

What causes lines on the teeth from malnutrition that is basically the thinning of enamel on the teeth?

A

Enamel Hypoplasias -

9
Q

What is caused from nutritional stress; lines on the ends of long bones?

A

Harris Lines -

10
Q

What is the thickening and porousness over the eye bones caused by iron deficiency anemia?

A

Porotic Hyperostosis -

11
Q

Who was the first identified the relationship between sickle cells anemia and malaria?

A

Frank Livingstone (physical anthropologist) -

12
Q

What is reconstructions of diet and habitat?

A

Archaeological Contributions -

13
Q

What shows the origins of Agriculture, Coprolites (dry or fossilized feces), Artifacts, Art depicting illness, etc.?

A

Archaeological Contributions -

14
Q

What is dry or fossilized feces used to study diets and habitats of different cultures?

A

Coprolite -

15
Q

What works with folk domains and taxonomies?

A

Linguistics -

16
Q

What is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event?

A

Discourse analysis -

17
Q

Describe Cultural Studies in Medical Anthropology:

A
  1. studies of ethnomedicine, including ethnobotany, often tied to belief systems
  2. studies of personality and mental health in diverse cultural settings
  3. applied studies in international public health and planned community change programs -
18
Q

What is an example of cultural studies in medical anthropology?

A

Peter Brown and Malaria in Sardinia, Native beliefs and health
-dont sleep with windows open
-live in highlands
-work in lowlands, but get back to high altitudes before nighttime -

19
Q

What is an example of studies of ethnomedicine, including ethnobotany, often tied to belief systems?

A

Macpalxoxitl, Fritz, etc. -

20
Q

What is an example of studies of personality and mental health in diverse cultural settings?

A

Susto and social role performance -

21
Q

What are modern drugs and Indigenous use?

A

Ethnobotany -

22
Q

What are examples of ethnobotany?

A
  • Curare
  • Aloe Vera
  • Aspirin from Willow Bark -
23
Q

What is a blow gun poison that was traditionally used in Amazon tribes to hunt monkeys, extracted from a plant (It blocks neurotransmitters and causes paralysis)?

A

Curare -

24
Q

Why has curare been an important invention?

A

it has helped with abdominal surgeries because it paralyzes a patient without affecting their organs and prevents muscle contractions -

25
Q

What is a Mexican Hand-Flower tree (flower resembles open human hand) that Aztec used to help with lower abdominal pains and cardiac/heart problems?

A

Mācpalxōchitl -

26
Q

What is a culture bound syndrome with a heavy disease load?

A

Susto -

27
Q

What is sometimes considered just a way to get out of going to work?

A

Susto -

28
Q

What is Susto also known as?

A

Soul loss -

29
Q

What is the immediate cause of susto?

A

fright (soul has been scared away) -

30
Q

What is the ultimate cause of susto?

A

witchcraft (concept of limited good) -

31
Q

Where does susto usually occur?

A

in small agrarian societies where most of everyone makes subsistence level -

32
Q

What is the etic view of susto?

A

-they have failed a social role performance
-they are the sickest of the sick -

33
Q

What are the forms of therapy for susto?

A

materia medica -

34
Q

What is the Aztec Disease theory?

A

Tonali -

35
Q

What are examples of the Aztec disease theory?

A

-sniffing hot pepper seeds
-piercing the septum with cactus needle and letting them bleed -

36
Q

What is EEA, life expectancy, applications?

A

Evolutionary Medicine -

37
Q

What are examples of evolutionary medicine?

A
  • Chronic Disease
    -Thrifty genes
  • Infectious Disease -
38
Q

What was selected during our evolutionary past to predispose carriers towards more efficient extraction and retention of scarce, yet essential nutrients: ie. fats and carbs, protein, and salt ?

A

Thrifty genes -

39
Q

What uses evolutionary models at the population level to mold pathogens to a more benign state of existence?

A

Infectious Disease -

40
Q

What did Eaton and Konner study about behavioral evolutionary medicine?

A

comparisons of paleolithic nutrition and activity with that of today -

41
Q

What is an example of evolutionary medicine with infectious diseases?

A

-the use of wide-spectrum antibacterials
-rethinking cost-benefit analysis
-“nothing but nets” -

42
Q

What is an antibiotic that acts against a wide range of disease-causing bacteria?

A

wide-spectrum antibiotics -