ANTH Exam 2 - Review 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH Exam 2 - Review 5 Deck (73)
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1
Q

Brazil is characterized by what traditions?

A

the long-standing, deeply embedded traditions of:
-Religious syncretism
-Religious pluralism
-Medical pluralism -

2
Q

What are the other factors of religious syncretism and religious/ medical pluralism?

A

-Folk Catholicism
-African traditions
-Spiritism and the rise of the Umbanda -

3
Q

Describe the factors that made the traditions in Brazil come about:

A
  1. About half of all the slaves imported went to Brazil. Brazil did not have any natives to use for labor so they had to bring in slaves. Sugar cane and coffee were a big reason for this. Slaves worshiped Orixas who were disguised as catholic saints
  2. The Portuguese crown was weak and had few places in Africa which to get slaves= cultural continuity and continuous influx of African people up to the 1880’s. They would give huge tracks of land away to nobles and they would take slaves over. Entire villages would be captured and kept together in Brazil.
  3. African medicine was very superior to European in Brazil during colonial times. European medicine sucked, would just cut off limbs or use hot and cold treatments. African medicine was mixed into religion too. -
4
Q

What was formed in an attempt to legitimize some of the African traditions/religions?

A

Umbanda -

5
Q

How many people consider themselves to be apart of Umbanda today?

A

35-40 million people (2nd largest religion in Brazil) -

6
Q

What are female Exus, identified of being a witch or prostitute in a past life; jealousy?

A

Pomba Giras -

7
Q

What is polytheistic, nature based, and spirit possession?

A

African traditions -

8
Q

What are the different spirit types of Umbanda?

A

-Exus
-Pomba Giras
-Preto Velhos
-Caboclos
-Ze Pilintra
-Zombeteros -

9
Q

What is the “cult of the saints”- intercessors to God?

A

Folk Catholicism -

10
Q

What are the spirits of former slaves; healing spirits, always work for good?

A

Preto Velhos -

11
Q

What are servants of the gods, neutral spirits of nature, can be used for “negative trabalhos.”?

A

Exus -

12
Q

What are native American and mixed blood spirits, powerful and proud, used for protection and diagnosis of spiritual illness?

A

Caboclos -

13
Q

What is a half spirit of light/ half trickster, heavy drinker?

A

Ze Pilintra -

14
Q

What are cadaver spirits, usually sent as an Encosto; lost souls, untimely deaths?

A

Zombeteiros -

15
Q

What is the favela in Fortaleza?

A

Pirambu -

16
Q

What percent of people in Pirambu claim they dont have electricity?

A

60% -

17
Q

What percent of people in Pirambu dont have indoor plumbing?

A

70% -

18
Q

Who are “the people that possess much land” ?

A

Azande Indians -

19
Q

Where do the Azande Indians live?

A

Located in sub-Saharan Africa (southern Sudan Africa & in the DR Congo too) -

20
Q

Who has homes made of mud, adobe, and grass., each women has their own house with a grainery and courtyard?

A

Zande Indians -

21
Q

Describe the Encosto case studies:

A

35 victims were interviews for 37 separate cases. (100% cure rate but hard to judge), most of the treatments were for mental problems or addiction like things

23 were believed to be caused by intentional witchcraft

Jealousy was the motivating factor in 16 of these cases.

9 cases happened by accident, through lack of spiritual protection
Large portion reported hallucinations, headaches, and strange behavior.

Others= lack of spiritual protection or failure to develop one’s medunity. A great tool for recruitment.

His story: The lady became sick, or could have just worried herself to be sick. Could have been faking it. Aware that her husband was cheating on her. Could have been a stress reaction or could have just been faking it all along. Cured in the end with a thing that popped out of her mouth in front of husband and family. -

22
Q

Describe the major themes of Encosto:

A
  1. as an explanation of illness and misfortune
  2. as a means of empowerment
  3. as a means of social control
  4. the enhancement of the leader’s prestige and importance
23
Q

What are their only domesticated animals?

A

Dogs and chickens -

24
Q

What type of society were the Azande pre European rule?

A

were a chiefdom society. A chief collected tribute and redistributed. Nobles made up less than 10% of pop., and still in power today -

25
Q

What is subsistence like for the Zande?

A

Horticultural based; they don’t rotate crops, simply move them so that the land reclaims itself; grow corn

26
Q

Do the Zande raise cattle? -

A

Don’t raise cattle, have problem with tse-tse fly” (?); causes a sleeping sickness.

27
Q

What type of marriage did the Zande Indians have?

A

They had a polygendous society, only a few men have more than one wife. Bride price is not cheap so must be wealthy to have more than one wife. -

28
Q

Who did the Zande use as consultants about everything?

A

Oracles -

29
Q

What were the Zande nobilty called?

A

Avongara -

30
Q

Describe the Zande Witchcraft:

A

• Actual physical property or substance found in certain individuals
• Comes out at night and travels, but doesn’t travel long distances
• Would only affect very close neighbors; will harm people
• Intentional and non-intentional
• Witchcraft is the reason for all misfortune; accused witches can be executed; rare today, but still does happen
• Witchcraft has been interpreted as a social control; threat; individuals with great wealth can be very susceptible; anti-social people as well, who are acting strange
• Social control mechanism, caused by jealous
• All death is looked at as murder
• Punishment for being a which could be death -

31
Q

Describe the Zande scheme:

A

• The British were in control of lands and moved them out of the traditional valley in the 1920s because of the tsetse fly problem; “a program of cash cropping (chiefly of cotton) and industry (producing cotton cloth)”.
• British moved the Zande people and forced them into tighter lands, skyrocketing accusations of witchcraft.

• British forced them on much smaller areas of land and forced them to be cotton farmers for cash wages
• More than 60,000 families had been moved onto farm land and set up clustered settlements
• Worked for a while, but to regard for their traditional practices; some got good land and some got bad land

• Britain tried to force cotton production on these people, but the Zande people did not like be ped up close together because of witchcraft.

• Now North and South Sudan (N=Islam, S=Tribes & Christians)

• Avongara: nobility -

32
Q

What is mangu?

A

witchcraft among the Azande tribe

33
Q

What is Benge?

A

the ‘Poison Oracle’ used by the Azande in which a decision is determined by whether or not a fowl survives being administered a poison.

34
Q

Where were the Aztec Indians?

A

Originally located in Northern Mexico, they were guided to Tenochtitlàn “the place of the prickly pear cactus” where they ruled for 90 years until they were conquered by the Spanish (the Spanish Inquisition)

35
Q

What disease kille 12-14 million Aztecs?

A

Small pox

36
Q

What was the Aztec society like?

A
  • state-level society, ruled by a supreme leader or emporer (huey tlatoani)
  • had strict laws for conduct
37
Q

What subsistence do the Trobriand islanders have?

A

They have horticulture supplemented by livestock and hunting and gathering and fishing -

38
Q

Where are the Trobriand Islanders located?

A

Series of islands off the coast of New Guinea -

39
Q

What is the most important cultivated plant for the Trobriand islanders?

A

yams (also have squash, corn, beans, etc..) -

40
Q

What sociopolitical type did the Trobriand Islanders have?

A

chiefdom society -

41
Q

What is the main source of protein for the Trobriand Islanders?

A

fish and pigs -

42
Q

A man is considered wealthy for the Trobriand islanders when he has a lot of what?

A

Yams
• Yams are tied into the worth of a man
• A man’s brother in law will build them a “Yam house”; but must first produce a son (heir for his wife’s brother); has to be good at yam production
• Yams can be stored for about 6 months -

43
Q

How many total clans are there in the Trobriand Islanders?

A

4 total clans and they must marry outside their clan -

44
Q

Do the Trobrian islanders like tourism?

A

no -

45
Q

What is Sovasova?

A

an illness believed to come about as a result of sex within someone who is related to you

46
Q

How did the Bushman people entertain themselves?

A

by storytelling -

47
Q

What is a vital part of the Bushman’s survival?

A

their sense of humor -

48
Q

Why can’t one of the Bushman men (TK) hunt for his family?

A

he was once hit with a poison arrow, which left him weak -

49
Q

Where do the Bushman people live?

A

in the desert in Botswana -

50
Q

How do the Bushman people hunt and kill antelopes?

A

Using poison arrows from grubs that they gathered, after the antelope has been shot he’ll die in a day or so.
(They apply the poison to the arrow and let it dry in the sun) -

51
Q

What sociopolitical type and subsistence type are the Bushman people?

A

band level- hunter and gatherers -

52
Q

Who teaches TK to hunt?

A

his uncle -

53
Q

Who are the Kayapo?

A

a tribe in Central Brazil -

54
Q

What were the Kayapos protesting?

A

the building of dams on rivers in Brazil -

55
Q

Where do the Kayapo live?

A

in the jungle, 100 miles from any white village in Brazil -

56
Q

What happens to all boys in the Kayapo culture?

A

They are taken from their families to learn military culture and live together at a men’s house (much like a boarding school) -

57
Q

What ritual did the Kayapo men do to show they are guardians of the forest?

A

They cut down a tree that symbolizes growth and they paint it and their faces red, dance, sing, and the young boys are initiated into afulthood -

58
Q

What river were the Kayapo refusing to have a dam built on it?

A

Xingu River -

59
Q

How many of the Indians made the 400 mile trek out of the forest?

A

600 -

60
Q

What do the Kayapos do to make the Indian groups unified?

A

In an effort of peace, they do a unification ritual to keep the potentially hostile groups unified -

61
Q

Did the Brazilians or the Indians win the argument about building the dam?

A

the Indians -

62
Q

Where are the Tiwi people located?

A

the Melville and Bathurst islands off the North coast of Australia -

63
Q

What is the Tiwi people’s subsistence?

A

hunters and gatherers -

64
Q

What do the men hunt in the Tiwi society?

A

turtles, geese, lizards, fish, and wallabies -

65
Q

what sociopolitical type did the Tiwi people have?

A

band level -

66
Q

Were the Tiwi people matrilineal or patrilineal?

A

matrilineal -

67
Q

What was the religion of the Tiwi people?

A

relationships, spirit children, revolves around taboos established for daily life, death rituals, and male initiation ceremonies -

68
Q

Where are the Yanomami people located?

A

In tropical forest villages in Brazil and Venezuela -

69
Q

What is the Yanomami’s subsistence?

A

hunting and gathering and horticulture (gardening and foraging) -

70
Q

Where does the bulk of the Yanomami food come from?

A

80% of their food is grown in village gardens -

71
Q

What is the Yanomami’s religion?

A

spiritism -

72
Q

Is the culture of the Yanomami people masculine or feminine?

A

masculine -

73
Q

What are politics like in the Yanomami society?

A

egalitarian, no ranked hierarchy -