ANTH 205 - Exam 3 Review (impact on indigenous + modernization) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH 205 - Exam 3 Review (impact on indigenous + modernization) Deck (24)
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1
Q

What are the 3 possible outcomes of National Societies’ Impact on Indigenous Peoples?

A
  1. Cultural Extinction
  2. Assimilation
  3. Creation of Subordinate Status -
2
Q

Describe Cultural Extinction:

A

can be Physical > war disease, famine
or Cultural > descendants live, but lose cultural ways/ split up, no longer exist as a people.
- example: Native American Groups: Pensacola, Place names, Yahi people & Ishi.
- example: Recent attacks on Yanamamo tribe in Amazon basin. -

3
Q

What is an example of cultural extinction?

A
  • Yahi people were attacked and killed for their land during the gold rush in California.
  • Ishi was the last known member of the Yahi who survived the cultural extinction by hiding in the mountains with his family for the next 44 years.
  • Surveyors ransacked the camp Ishi, his uncle, his younger sister, and his mother lived at in the mountains.
  • Ishi survived in the wilderness for 3 more years, alone. With no supplies, Ishi stepped into the western culture.
  • Anthropologists at UC Berkeley brought him in for research and gave him a room above the museum to live.
  • Ishi died five year later from tuberculosis in San Francisco -
4
Q

What is a bunch of tribes in the Amazon river basin that went extinct?

A

Yanamamo -

5
Q

What is the acceptance of new ways; integration into mainstream society as first class citizen; (almost never happens)?

A

Assimilation -

6
Q

What is it when indigenous groups of people become second-class citizens, not destroyed, but live apart-not fully assimilated; loose their autonomy, ability to make economic decisions, access to resources and land; (most common today)?

A

Creation of Subordinate Status -

7
Q

What is an example of an indigenous group of people becoming a subordinate status?

A

History of Native North Americans: Wars > Slaughters > Promises & Treaties > Breaking of Treaties > Forced Removals > Subordinate Status, Trail of Tears, School Systems. -

8
Q

Explain the Dawes Act of 1887:

A
  • 100M acres of land lost by the native people to white settlers
  • in exchange, government gave 160 acre (0.25 sq. mile) plots to each head of household
  • if they accepted this land, they became US citizens and law of the land applied to them. -
9
Q

What are systems of Directed Change by Modern Societies: Usually have been based on ethnocentric theories of social evolution?

A

Cultural Change and Modernization -

10
Q

What is the (more recent) effect of powerful international corporations?

A

World-Systems Theory -

11
Q

What do the Goals of Modernization: in “underdeveloped countries” usually include?

A
  1. Education
  2. Technology Transfer
  3. Participation in Cash Economy -
12
Q

How would education take place for modernization?

A

-teach them english
-change unwanted social practices -

13
Q

How would technology transfer take place for modernization?

A

-help upgrade to newer methods
-agriculture is more productive than horticulture
-agriculture is more productive than pastoralism. -

14
Q

How would participation in Cash Economy take place in modernization?

A

putting more people to work give more tax revenues which give bigger salaries -

15
Q

What are 4 case studies in moderization?

A
  1. Guarani Indians in itanarami Village in eastern Paraguay
  2. Apache housing Project
  3. Pastoralism in Kenya
  4. Cocaine trade in Bolivia
16
Q

Describe the Guarani Indians of Itanarami Village in Eastern Paraguay:

A

-they dealt with deforestation at rapid rate
-their land and soil not suitable for mono cropping/raising livestock.
-Guarani traditional subsistence, crop rotation, slash and burn, small clearings
-Development enters, destroys land, way of life -

17
Q

Describe the Apache Housing Projects (1962):

A
  • Houses set on grid pattern, clash with traditional customs
  • Apaches houses have to face east, must be a circular house, don’t like to have separate rooms, door has to face east, separate houses in a matrilineal cluster
  • As soon as the govt. left, they moved out or tore down the houses
  • Apache got sued for property damage
  • Went to court and the Apache’s won -
18
Q

A 1960’s aid program by the US government to the Apache Indians failed because of a lack of proper regard for differing cultural practices. This program involved
a. health care
b. free housing
c. education
d. low interest loans

A

free housing

19
Q

Describe Pastoralism in Kenya:

A

forced agriculture in North, compared to southern tribe
-Were relocated to small farms and were forced to sell of their animals plots to pay off loans for their plots of land
-nomadic pastoralism was a very inefficient way to farm land
-kept people isolated without modernization
-ruined the land for pastoralism
-1/3 of of pastoralist population were living in famine camps by end of 1980. -

20
Q

How many total moves do pastoralists in Kenya usually make in a year?

A

15 -

21
Q

Describe the Cocaine Trade in Bolivia:

A

-facts and figures, cases studies of villages
-native indians of bolivia normally chewed coca leaves as an everyday tonic, to help breathe at higher altitudes, similar to having a cup of coffee
-the places to grow coca plants are also the best places for agriculture
-causes food shortage
-unable to buy food because of super high prices
-only job that paid enough wages was cocaine production
-growing and cutting of coca plants very little work –> coca paste –> refined to powder cocaine
-workers get addicted to cocain and given money and prostitutes
-countryside the drug lords rule
-despite, enormous hardship, still bolivia’s biggest income - and removal of the cocaine trade would ruin the country’s economy

22
Q

What is Bolivia’s number 1 crop?

A

cocaine -

23
Q

What percent of Bolivia’s total revenue is from cocaine?

A

70% -

24
Q

The Kayapo tribe is in which country?

A

Brazil