ANTH Exam 2 - Zapotec_Winds of Ixtepeji Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTH Exam 2 - Zapotec_Winds of Ixtepeji Deck (39)
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1
Q

Winds of Ixtepeji

A

in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico
-town in the late 1960’s, impoverished people
-corn is on the decline
-poor sanitation, leading to many diseases
-infestation of rodents also causing problems

2
Q

Winds of Ixtepeji:
Author’s approach -

A

cogniive/ psychological anthropology

3
Q

Winds of Ixtepeji:
Ethnography -

A

Book is an old school ethnography.

4
Q

Who were the Zapotec and where did they live?

A

an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca in Mesoamerica

5
Q

Zapotec:
What was the state of their Health?

A
  • Parasite infection is greatest cause of death.
  • Flies, rodents and water contamination cause problems
  • No inside toilets. Horrible sanitation
6
Q

Zapotec:
Feelings toward people around them -

A

Not fond of anyone outside their group.
Hate people from the Valley the most.

7
Q

Zapotec:
What is a Comunero?

A

any adult member of the community; peasant farmers; Anyone can utilize any unoccupied land, hunt, cut wood, etc.

8
Q

Zapotec:
What is a Cargo?

A

an elected office; age 18-60; presidente is the highest office and is the representative to the outside world

9
Q

Zapotec:
What is a Principal?

A

Man who has served his time in a Cargo

10
Q

What is a Presidente?

A

serves as the head of the municipal.

11
Q

Zapotec concept of Aigre/Aire -

A

Full of evil spirits
-the main (supernatural) cause of illness; it’s invisible, yet in everything. It is everywhere, inescapable, mysterious

12
Q

What are the 3 types of Aigre/Aire?

A
  • Aigre Natural (natural air)
  • Aigre Puesto (placed air)
  • Aigre de hora (air of the hour)
13
Q

What is Aigre natural?

A

Natural air: Came from a god
- least consequence. Natural sickness sent by god, inexpensive treatment.

14
Q

What is Aigre puesto?

A

Placed Air: voodoo; Sent by an emery. Causes pain.
- Believe that people can manipulate placed air

15
Q

What is Aigre de hora ?

A

Air of the hour
- inflicted by fire witches,
- transformed humans or evil spirits of the dead
- protects or punish towns people;
- associated with the night
- SOCIAL CONTROL

16
Q

Zapotec:
What is La Llorona?

A

Symbol of family and interpersonal relations.
She was mother who drowned her children (used in enculturation)
- After she was abandoned by lover, she kills children in river.
-Trapped in air. Now her spirit harms men when they go out at night for bad
- They use her as a fictive character to frighten and condition children

17
Q

Zapotec:
Conception of spirits -

A

Spirits, like air, are invisible, mysterious, inescapable. Concern & anxiety with spirits.

18
Q

Zapotec:
What is Feast of all saints ?

A

spirits return to visit family and feast on the aromas and vapors of the food

19
Q

Zapotec:
What is Susto?

A

Caused by frightening encounters. Children especially prone to Susto. Fear has scared the soul away- soul sickness.

20
Q

Zapotec:
What is Mal Ojo?

A

The Evil Eye. An illness believed to occur when someone looks at you with envy or appreciation. More often in CHILDREN.

21
Q

Zapotec:
What is Mala Muerte?

A

“Bad death”
- Sudden, unexpected, etc
- Spirits of these deaths are trapped in air and remain there. Air is getting worse.

22
Q

Zapotec:
What is Engano and Desconfianza ?

A

“Deception and trickery”
- Establishes a community of distrust
- believed it is best to conceal your affairs from others so you cannot be deceived
- children are lied to from a very young agehers

23
Q

How did the Zapotec discipline children?

A

Through threats, lies, deceit.
- no consistancy
- La larona
- they tried to frighten them

24
Q

Zapotec:
How do they view Time?

A

Idolize the past. Weary of the future

25
Q

Zapotec:
What is Chipil & Muina?

A

“Envy” and “Hostility”

26
Q

Zapotec:
What is Chipil?

A

“Envy”
- Sibling rivalry.
- Results in envy because younger child is getting attention

27
Q

Zapotec:
What is Muina?

A

“hostility”
- Results from envy/anger.
- causes bodily mutations, the person with muina can be dangerous;
- believe that eating or drinking while you have muina will poison the blood.
- SOCIAL CONTROL.

28
Q

Zapotec:
Concept of Limited good -

A

Leveling act. If one has too much- taking away from another

29
Q

Zapotec:
Concept of Destiny -

A

person born with a destiny- cannot change- can work to get potential

30
Q

Zapotec:
What was the belief about drunkeness?

A

Themes of brotherhood, friendship, solidarity
- Drink Mezcal as a ritual
- Everyone must drink
- Be suspicious if you don’t drink

31
Q

Zapotec:
What are the 3 stages of Drunkeness?

A

1) Monkey blood: Opening up, confidence, friendly
2) Lion’s blood: belligerent, argumentative
3) Pig blood: looses control, vomit, falls

32
Q

Zapotec:
What is Monkey blood

A

first stage of drinking.
- Opening up, confidence, friendly

33
Q

Zapotec:
What is Lion’s blood?

A

2nd stage of drinking
- belligerent, argumentative

34
Q

Zapotec:
What is Pig blood?

A

3rd stage of drinking
- looses control, vomit, falls

35
Q

Zapotec:
What types of alcohol did they drink and for what purpose?

A

-Beer: normal consumption
-Mescal (Tequila): drunk in ritual form (shots)
-Tepache: made from cactus. fermented

36
Q

How did the Zapotec feel if someone refused to drink?

A

-Refusal of drink invitations creates superstition and unease amongst others open to drinking

37
Q

What was the Zapotec worldview?

A

Viewed the world as harsh/hostile & supernatural
- believed it used to be better and is now just getting worse

38
Q

Zaptotec:
How is Witchcraft used in society?

A

used as a leveling mechanism in order to keep everyone at the same level; stay modest and humble

39
Q

Zapotec:
What do they believe about Destiny?

A

not good, inescapable, inevitable