Antibacterial Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antibacterial Drugs Deck (60)
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1

clostridium perfringens

metronidazole, chloramphenicol, penicillin G

2

what kind of killers are beta lactams? what does this imply?

time-dependent; since they have short half-lives you need shorter dosing intervals

3

penicillin G and V: spectrum

-gram positive anaerobes (notably, C. perfringens)
-gram positive (notably, 1st line for strep throat)
-narrow gram negative: neisseria meningiditis
-Syphilis

4

what is oxacillin?

a beta lactam penicillin antibiotic used against beta-lactamase-positive staph

5

amoxicillin: class, uses

-beta lactam
-otitis media in children caused by strep pneumoniae
-alternate choice for Lyme disease

6

2 important uses that ampicillin has that amoxicillin doesn't

meningitis, GI infections

7

otitis media by strep pneumoniae (2)

amoxicillin, TMP/SMX

8

ticarcillin: class, uses

-beta lactam
-broad gram negative spectrum (notably, Pseudomonas aeruginosa)

9

piperacillin: class, uses

-beta lactam
-broad gram negative spectrum like ticarcillin, but also more Pseudomonas and Klebsiella

10

pseudomonas aeruginosa

CC TT PNG
ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, ticarcillin, tobramycin, piperacillin, norfloxacin, gentamicin

11

mechanism of clavulanic acid and tazobactam

beta-lactam "analogs" that bind irreversibly to beta-lactamase

12

mechanism of beta-lactams

competitively and irreversibly inhibit PBPs which catalyze cell wall cross-links

13

mechanism of cephalosporins

they are beta-lactams = competitively and irreversibly inhibit PBPs

14

1st generation cephalosporins: uses, two drugs

-gram positive
-surgical prophylaxis for skin flora
-drugs: cefazolin, cephalexin

15

surgical prophylaxis for skin flora

cefazolin

16

3rd generation cephalosporins: uses, two drugs

-gram negative
-ceftriaxone, ceftazidime

17

ceftriaxone: uses

-common types of meningitis
-gonorrhea

18

ceftazidime: use

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

19

only beta-lactam with no cross-reaction with other beta-lactams

aztreonam

20

imipenem: what it is, uses

-broad spectrum beta lactam resistant to many beta-lactamases
-mixed, ill-defined, resistant infections (notably, C. perfringens)

21

aztreonam: what it is, use, unique aspect

-beta lactam
-gram negative aerobes
-no allergic cross-reactions with beta lactams

22

-beta lactam
-gram negative aerobes
-no allergic cross-reactions with beta lactams

aztreonam

23

vancomycin: what it is, -cidal or -static, mechanism, uses

-glycopeptide antibiotic
-bactericidal
-binds to free end (D-Ala-D-Ala) of pentapeptide, which interferes with crosslinking and elongation of peptidoglycan chains
-gram positives ONLY (notably, MRSA and C. difficile)

24

fosfomycin: mechanism, uses

-inhibits synthesis of peptidoglycan building blocks
-use: uncomplicated UTIs caused by E. coli, Enterococcus (2 F's for 2 E's)

25

bacitracin: what it is, mechanism, use

-polypeptide
-interferes with lipid carrier that moves cell wall components through cell membrane
-topical use only, gram positive spectrum

26

polymyxin B: mechanism, uses

-cationic detergent that binds LPS in the outer membrane of gram negatives
-topical use only, gram negative spectrum

27

daptomycin: mechanism, uses

-binds to bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, causing rapid membrane depolarization
-gram positive (notably, MRSA)

28

cell membrane agents

polymyxin B and daptomycin

29

quinolones: mechanism, -static or -cidal, killing type, drugs, side effects

-inhibits DNA gyrase --> interferes with supercoiling
-bactericidal; killing dependent on area under the curve
-norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin
-side effects: EKG irregularities, tendon rupture, seizures

30

quinolones used for UTIs

norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin