General and Local Anesthetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in General and Local Anesthetics Deck (39)
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1

thiopental: what it is, use, positive/negative aspects, side effects, contraindications

-parenterally administered barbiturate general anesthetic
-induction only
-has a long half-life so it can produce "hang-over" effects after anesthesia has worn off
-side effect: causes decreased ICP, venodilation, respiratory depression
-contraindicated in patients with impaired ability to compensate for venodilation (e.g., hypovolemia, cardiomyopathy)

2

can cause "hang-over" effects after anesthesia has worn off

thiopental

3

propofol: what it is, use, positive/negative aspects, side effects, contraindications

-parenterally administered general anesthetic
-induction and maintenance
-antiemetic
-shorter half-life than thiopental so it is used for outpatient surgery
-side effects: decreased ICP,
more severe decrease in BP than thiopental, more respiratory depression than thiopental
-contraindicated in patients with impaired ability to compensate for venodilation (e.g., hypovolemia, cardiomyopathy)

4

antiemetic

propofol

5

shorter half-life than thiopental so it is used for outpatient surgery

propofol

6

contraindicated in patients with impaired ability to compensate for venodilation (e.g., hypovolemia, cardiomyopathy)

thiopental, propofol

7

etomidate: what it is, use, positive/negative aspects, side effects

-parenterally administered general anesthetic
-induction for patients at risk for hypotension
-little or no decrease in BP, less respiratory depression than thiopental and propofol
-side effects: significantly more nausea and vomiting than thiopental, increased post-surgical morbidity due to suppression of adrenocortical stress response

8

suppression of adrenocortical stress response

etomidate

9

used for induction for patients at risk for hypotension

etomidate

10

dissociative anesthesia

ketamine

11

parenterally administered general anesthetic that does not act on GABA receptors

ketamine (NMDA receptor antagonist)

12

emergence delirium

ketamine

13

ketamine: what it is, use, positive/negative aspects, side effects

-parenterally-administered general anesthetic reserved for patients with asthma/bronchospasm
-NMDA receptor antagonist
-causes "dissociative anesthesia"
-causes no respiratory depression and is a bronchodilator
-side effects: nystagmus, spontaneous limb movements, increased ICP, hypertension, emergence delirium

14

anesthetic reserved for patients with asthma/bronchospasm

ketamine

15

short-acting benzodiazepine parenterally-administered general anesthetic

midazolam

16

conscious sedation

midazolam

17

anxiolytic

midazolam

18

midazolam: what it is, duration of action, use, positive/negative aspects, side effects, contraindications

-parenterally-administerd short-acting benzodiazepine general anesthetic
-induction only
-used for conscious sedation
-anxiolytic = good for pre-op
-side effects: respiratory depression/respiratory arrest, decreased BP
-contraindicated in patients with neuromuscular disease, Parkinson's, bipolar disorder

19

how does blood:gas coefficient influence the rate of induction and recovery from anesthesia?

the lower the blood:gas partition coefficient, the faster the rate of induction and the shorter the recovery from anesthesia

20

isoflurane: what it is, blood:gas coefficient, use, side effects

-inhalational anesthetic
-moderate blood:gas coefficient
-induction and maintenance
-side effects: airway irritant, decreases BP, increased ICP

21

desflurane: what it is, blood:gas coefficient, use, side effects

-inhalational anesthetic
-very low blood:gas coefficient (=rapid induction and recovery)
-maintenance (not used to induce because it can cause bronchospasm)
-side effects: airway irritant, decreases BP, increased ICP

22

sevoflurane: what it is, blood:gas coefficient, use, side effects

-very low blood:gas coefficient (=rapid induction and recovery)
-induction and maintenance
-side effects: NOT a respiratory irritant, decreases BP, increased ICP, less respiratory depression than isoflurane; can be metabolized to fluoride ion in the liver --> renal damage

23

inhalational anesthetic that is NOT a respiratory irritant

sevoflurane

24

moderate blood:gas coefficient

isoflurane

25

anesthetics used for induction and maintenance

SIP: propofol, sevoflurane, isoflurane

26

nitrous oxide

-rapid uptake from the alveolae results in "concentration" of gases that are administered at the same time
-can dilute oxygen when its use is discontinued, therefore need to place patients on 100% O2 during emergence

27

cocaine: what it is, use

-ester local anesthetic
-potent vasoconstrictor-->shrinks mucosal membranes and limits bleeding
-used as topical anesthetic for upper respiratory tract

28

procaine: duration of action, what it is, use

-short-acting synthetic ester local anesthetic
-infiltration anesthesia

29

tetracaine: duration of action, what it is, use

-long-acting ester local anesthetic
-used in spinal anesthesia and in topical and ophthalmic preparations

30

benzocaine: what it is, use

-ester local anesthetic
-applied topically to burns and ulcerated surfaces