Antimycobacterial Drugs Flashcards Preview

Block 3 Pharm > Antimycobacterial Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antimycobacterial Drugs Deck (24)
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1

isoniazid: mechanism, uses, metabolism, side effects

-bactericidal
-inhibits synthesis of mycolic acid; prodrug that is activated by KatG protein and targets the InhA protein
-use: TB infection; for active TB always given in combination
-absorption/excretion: N-acetylated by N-acetyltransferase-2
-side effects: peripheral neuritis (improved with B6 administration), hepatotoxicity

2

rifampin: use, mechanism, side effects

-treats TB
-inhibits RNA polymerase, thereby suppressing RNA synthesis
-bactericidal
-side effects: hepatotoxicity, potent inducer of multiple CYPs, orange color

3

ethambutol: mechanism, side effects

-interferes with arabinosyl transferase, blocking cell wall synthesis
-tuberculostatic
-side effects: optic neuritis

4

bactericidal drugs against TB

mnemonic: RIPS TB apart!!
isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, streptomycin

5

pyrazinamide: use, mechanism, -static or -cidal, side effect

-treats TB, particularly useful for CNS involvement
-blocks mycolic acid synthesis by inhibiting fatty acid synthase I
-bactericidal
-side effect: hepatotoxicity

6

streptomycin: mechanism, use, side effects

-binds to several ribosomal sites
-usually reserved for the most serious forms of TB because of its adverse effects
-side effects: ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity

7

rifabutin

single-agent prophylaxis of MAC

8

single-agent prophylaxis of MAC

rifabutin

9

clarithromycin: use, -static or -cidal

-part of multi-drug regimen for treatment of MAC
-also prophylaxis
-bactericidal

10

most common multi-drug therapy for MAC

rifabutin + clarithromycin

11

drugs used in treatment of leprosy

dapsone, clofazimine, rifampin

12

dapsone: uses, mechanism, side effects

-treatment of leprosy, prophylaxis and treatment of Pneumocystis jiroveci
-structural analog of PABA, inhibits synthesis of folic acid
-side effects: hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia

13

clofazimine: use, mechanism

-treatment of leprosy
-binds to mycobacterial DNA, interfering with reproduction and growth

14

bacteriostatic drug against TB

ethambutol

15

particularly useful for CNS penetration in treatment of TB

pyrazinamide

16

interferes with arabinosyl transferase

ethambutol

17

blocks mycolic acid synthesis by inhibiting fatty acid synthase I

pyrazinamide

18

anti-TB agent that binds to several ribosomal sites

streptomycin

19

treatment of leprosy, prophylaxis and treatment of Pneumocystis jiroveci

dapsone

20

structural analog of PABA, inhibits synthesis of folic acid

dapsone

21

side effects: hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia

dapsone

22

-treatment of leprosy
-binds to mycobacterial DNA, interfering with reproduction and growth

clofazimine

23

side effects: peripheral neuritis (improved with B6 administration), hepatotoxicity

isoniazid

24

side effects: hepatotoxicity, potent inducer of multiple CYPs, orange color

rifampin