Antifungfal Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antifungfal Drugs Deck (24)
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1

amphotericin B: use, mechanism, side effect

-broad spectrum for most systemic mycoses
-binds ergosterol in fungal membranes producing membrane instability/leakage
-side effect: nephrotoxicity

2

flucytosine: use, mechanism, side effect

-serious infections due to Candida and Cryptococcus
-converted by fungal enzyme to 5-FU, whose metabolites then bock nucleic acid synthesis
-side effect: nephrotoxicity

3

imidazoles/triazoles: mechanism, drug names

-inhibit enzyme that converts lanosterol to ergosterol, depriving membranes of ergosterol
-FIV: fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole

4

fluconazole: mechanism, candida spectrum (sites, species), use other than Candida

-inhibits enzyme that converts lanosterol to ergosterol, depriving membranes of ergosterol
-sites: CNS and urinary
-least: some albicans and glabrata, no krusei
-Cryptococcus meningitis

5

itraconazole: mechanism, candida spectrum (sites, species), uses other than Candida

-inhibits enzyme that converts lanosterol to ergosterol, depriving membranes of ergosterol
-sites: esophageal and oropharyngeal
-intermediate: albicans, glabrata, some krusei
-Blastomyces, Histoplasma

6

voriconazole: mechanism, candida spectrum (sites, species), use other than Candida

-inhibits enzyme that converts lanosterol to ergosterol, depriving membranes of ergosterol
-sites: not urinary
-broad: covers many species
-invasive Aspergillus

7

list imidazoles/triazoles from broadest to least broad candida spectrum

voriconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole

8

imidazole/triazole with CNS penetration

fluconazole

9

which antifungals can cause nephrotoxicity?

amphotericin B and flucytosine

10

imidazole/triazole used against crpytococccus meningitidis

fluconazole

11

imidazole/triazole used against blastomyces and histoplasma

itraconazole

12

antifungals used to treat invasive Aspergillus

voriconazole, caspofungin

13

imidazole/triazole that has risk of serious cardiovascular events/death?

itraconazole

14

side effects of imidazole/triazoles?

-mild hepatotoxicity
-potent inhibitors of many CYP enzymes

15

caspofungin: uses, mechanism

-invasive Aspergillus, Candida (esophageal and systemic)
-inhibits fungal cell wall synthesis by blocking synthesis of beta(1,3)-D-glucan

16

drugs used to treat superficial Candida infections

FACIN: fluconazole, clotrimazole, itraconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B

17

nystatin: use, mechanism

-superficial Candida infections
-mechanism similar to amphotericin B: binds ergosterol in fungal membranes producing membrane instability/leakage

18

treatment of ophthalmic fungal infections

natamycin

19

natamycin: use, mechanism

-treatment of ophthalmic fungal infections
-mechanism similar to amphotericin B: binds ergosterol in fungal membranes producing membrane instability/leakage

20

only FDA-approved topical Rx for fungal nail infections

ciclopirox

21

terbinafine: use, mechanism

-oral preparation for severe dermatophyte infections refractory to topical therapy
-inhibits fungal squalene epoxidase; fungicidal

22

inhibits fungal squalene epoxidase

terbinafine

23

inhibit enzyme that converts lanosterol to ergosterol, depriving membranes of ergosterol

imidazole/triazoles: fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole

24

griseofulvin: use, mechanism

-for recalcitrant dermatophytic infections of skin, hair, nails
-children with tinea capitis
-interferes with microtubule function/mitotic spindle/mitosis