Antibacterial Drugs: Drug Classes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antibacterial Drugs: Drug Classes Deck (19)
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1

what kind of killers are beta lactams? what does this mean? what does this imply for beta lactam administration?

-time-dependent
-work best when concentration exceeds 4x MIC for >50% of the time
-since beta lactams have short half-lives you need shorter dosing intervals

2

what kind of killers are quinolones? what does this mean?

area under the curve; killing is dependent on concentration x time

3

what kind of killers are aminoglycosides? what does this mean?

-concentration-dependent
-the most important property for killing is the peak concentration that is achieved (the higher the peak concenrtation the greater the kill)
-these drugs will have persistent effect even when levels fall below MIC

4

time-depedent killers

beta-lactams

5

concentration-dependent killers

aminoglycosides

6

area under the curve killers

quinolones

7

mechanism of quinolones, drug names

-inhibits DNA gyrase thereby inhibiting supercoiling
-norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin

8

mechanism of aminoglycosides, drug names

-transported into bacterial by energy-requiring aerobic process-->binds to 30S/50S interface-->inhibits protein synthesis
-gentamicin, tobramicin, amikacin

9

mechanism of tetracyclines, drug names

-bind to 30S subunit
-doxycycline, minocycline

10

mechanism of macrolides, drug names

-bind to 50S subunit, blocks translocation along ribosomes
-erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin

11

what are norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin?

quinolones

12

what are clarithromycin, azithromycin?

macrolides

13

what are gentamicin, tobramicin, amikacin

aminoglycosides

14

what are doxycycline, minocycline?

tetracyclines

15

drug efflux pump is the most common resistance mechanism for what class of drugs?

tetracyclines

16

3 major drug classes that are protein synthesis agents

aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, and macrolides

17

what are the side effects of quinolones?

EKG irregularities, tendon rupture, seizures

18

what are the side effects of tetracyclines?

teeth discoloration

19

what are the side effects of nitrofurans?

hepatotoxicity, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia