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Flashcards in Antiviral Drugs Deck (45)
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1

how does herpesviruses facilitate effective drug therapy?

-replication continues over long periods
-encode enzymes for their own replication
-participate in drug activation

2

two drugs used to prevent and treat influenza A, and the difference between them

-amantadine and oseltamivir
-amantadine is treatment and prophylaxis of influenza A ONLY, while oseltamivir is treatment and prevention of both influenza A and B

3

oseltamivir: use and mechanism

-prophylaxis and treatment of influenza A and B
-inhibits influenza neuraminidases and interferes with viral release and penetration

4

ophthalmic herpes simplex

trifluridine

5

herpes simplex not ophthalmic

acyclovir, foscarnet, famciclovir, penciclovir

6

acyclovir: use, mechanism

-systemic and genital herpes simplex
-activated by herpes enzymes and acts as a competitive inhibitor of dGTP and as a chain terminator

7

acute herpes zoster (shingles)

famciclovir

8

recurrent genital herpes

famciclovir

9

famciclovir: uses, mechanism

-acute herpes zoster (shingles), recurrent genital herpes
-mechanism similar to acyclovir, prodrug activated to penciclovir which is then phosphorylated to inhibit DNA polymerase

10

drugs that treat CMV infection

ganciclovir, foscarnet

11

ganciclovir: use, mechanism, side effect

-CMV retinitis and prophylaxis
-similar mechanism to acyclovir, nucleoside analog whose triphosphate form inhibits DNA synthesis and terminates DNA elongation
-bone marrow suppression

12

antiviral drugs that have bone marrow suppression as side effect

GRZ (bone marrow suppression is a GRiZzly side effect): ganciclovir, zidovudine (AZT), and ribavirin

13

acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex

foscarnet

14

foscarnet: uses, mechanism, side effects

-CMV, acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex
-inhibits DNA polymerase, does not require conversion to triphosphate form to be active
-side effects: renal damage, seizures (limits use)

15

drugs approved for hepatitis B and HIV

lamivudine and tenofovir

16

drugs used to treat hepatitis B

lamivudine, tenofovir, and alpha-interferons

17

mechanism of lamivudine and tenofovir when treating hepatitis B

inhibit reverse transcriptase domain of hepatitis B DNA polymerase

18

RSV infections (mostly children)

ribavirin

19

most effective treatment for hepatitis C

boceprevir + PEG-interferon-alpha + ribavirin

20

RSV infections (mostly children) and hepatitis C

ribavirin

21

ribavirin: uses, mechanism, side effect

-RSV infection and hepatitis C
-interferes with viral mRNA synthesis by inhibiting GMP/GTP synthesis and capping of viral mRNA
-side effect: bone marrow suppression

22

alpha interferons: uses

venereal warts, hepatitis B and C (used in combination with ribavirin and boceprevir for hepatitis C)

23

boceprevir: use, mechanism

-hepatitis C (in combination with ribavirin and PEG-interferon-alpha)
-inhibits NS3 protease of hepatitis C, blocks formation of infectious virus

24

zidovudine: what it is, mechanism, side effects

-NRTI (nucleoside inhibitors of reverse transcriptase) for treatment of HIV
-nucleoside analog that is phosphorylated --> inhibits reverse transcriptase --> acts as a DNA chain terminator
-side effects: bone marrow suppression, lactic acidosis, hepatic steatosis

25

tenofovir: what it is, uses, mechanism, side effects

-NRTI
-combination therapy for HIV; hepatitis B
-nucleoTide prodrug that competes for incorporation into DNA --> chain termination
side effects: lactic acidosis, hepatic steatosis

26

lamivudine: what it is, uses, mechanism, side effects

-NRTI
-AZT-resistant HIV; hepatitis B
-nucleoside analog inhibitor of reverse transcriptase
-side effects: lactic acidosis, hepatic steatosis

27

side effects common to NRTIs

lactic acidosis, hepatic steatosis

28

lactic acidosis, hepatic steatosis

NRTIs: zidovudine, tenofovir, lamivudine, abacavir

29

efavirenz: what it is, use, mechanism

-NNRTI
-part of multi-drug therapy for HIV
-disrupts active site of reverse transcriptase

30

lopinavir: use, mechanism, side effects

-treats HIV in combination with reverse transcriptase inhibitors
-protease inhibitor, so prevents viral aspartic protease from cleaving Gag-pol polypeptide into separate functional proteins
-side effects: diabetes (elevated glucose), altered lipid metabolism (increased triglycerides and cholesterol)