Aortic Arch/Branchial Apparatus EC Flashcards Preview

Evan's Step 1 Prep Material > Aortic Arch/Branchial Apparatus EC > Flashcards

Flashcards in Aortic Arch/Branchial Apparatus EC Deck (22):
1

1st Aortic arch derivaties

Maxillary artery

2

2nd Aortic arch derivatives

Stapedial artery
Hyoid artery

3

3rd Aortic arch derivatives

Common carotid artery
Internal Carotid artery (proximal part)

4

4th Aortic arch derivatives

Aortic arch
Right subclavian artery (proximal)

5

6th Aortic arch derivatives

Pulmonary arteries
Ductus arteriosus

6

Branchial apparatus organization (Clefts, Arches, and Pouches)

"CAP from outside to in"

Clefts=Ectoderm
Arches=Mesoderm and Neural crest
Pouches=Endoderm

7

Branchial cleft cyst

2nd-4th branchial clefts form cervical sinuses which are usually obliterated by proliferation of 2nd arch mesenchyme

Failure of obliteration of cervical sinuses results in branchial cleft cyst within lateral neck

8

1st Branchial arch derivatives (cartilage, muscles, nerves)

Meckel's cartilage:
Mandible, Malleus-incus and sphenoid, Mandibular ligament

Muscles of Mastication:
Masseter, temporalis, lateral and Medial pterygoids, ant. belly of digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini

V2 and V3 (chew)

9

Mandibular hypoplasia, facial abnormalities (syndrome and mechanism)

Treacher Collins syndrome

1st branchial arch fails to migrate

10

2nd Branchial arch derivatives (cartilage, muscles, nerves)

Reighert's cartilage:
Stapes, Styloid process, Lesser horn of hyoid, Stylohyoid ligament

Muscles of facial expression, Stapedius, Stylohyoid, Posterior belly of digastric

CN VII

11

3rd Branchial arch derivatives (cartilage, muscles, nerves)

Greater horn of hyoid

Stylopharyngeus

CN IX

12

Fistula between tonsillar area and cleft in lateral neck (syndrome and mechanism)

Congenital pharyngo-cutaneous fistula

Persistence of 3rd cleft and pouch

13

4th Branchial arch derivatives (cartilage, muscles, nerves)

Thyroid cartilage

Pharyngeal constrictors, Cricothyroid, Levator veli palatini

CN X (superior laryngeal branch)

14

6th Branchial arch derivatives (cartilage, muscles, nerves)

Cricoid, Arytenoids, Corniculate, Cuneiform cartilage (all laryngeal except thyroid)

Intrinsic muscles of larynx except cricothyroid

CN X (recurrent laryngeal branch)

15

Arches forming posterior 1/3 of tongue

Arches 3 and 4

16

1st Branchial pouch derivatives

Middle ear cavity, eustachian tube, mastoid air cells

Ears

17

2nd Branchial pouch derivatives

Epithelial lining of palatine tonsil

Tonsils

18

3rd Branchial pouch derivatives

Dorsal wings --> Inferior parathyroids

Ventral wings --> Thymus

19

4th Branchial pouch derivatives

Dorsal wings --> Superior parathyroids

20

Mutation of germline RET (neural crest cells)
~adrenal medulla (pheochromocytoma)
~Parathyroid (3/4th pharyngeal pouch)
~Parafollicular cells (Medullary thyroid cancer -4/5th pharyngeal pouches)

MEN2A

21

Failure of fusion of the maxillary and medial nasal processes

Cleft lip

(failure in formation of primary palate)

22

Failure of fusion of the lateral palatine processes, the nasal septum, and median palatine process

Cleft palate

(failure in formation of secondary palate)

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