Ch2 Growth Alterations EC Flashcards Preview

Evan's Step 1 Prep Material > Ch2 Growth Alterations EC > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch2 Growth Alterations EC Deck (23):
1

Causes of atrophy

Decreased hormone stimulation (ie. hypopituitarism)
Decreased innervation (ie ALS)
Decreased blood flow (ie cerebral atrophy in atherosclerosis)
Decreased nutrients (ie marasmus)

2

Compression atrophy

Increased luminal pressure
(ie hydronephrosis)
(ie pancreas in CF)

3

Autophagy

Enzyme degradation of organelles
Vacuoles with organelles fuse with lysosomes

4

Brown atrophy

Increased lipofuscin in cells (undigested lipid)

5

Three mechanisms of atrophy

Autophagy
Apoptosis
Decreased protein synthesis/Increased protein degradation

6

Remaining kidney postnephrectomy

Undergoes compensatory hypertrophy

7

CMV hypertrophy of cell

Increase Fe uptake causing increased cell growth

8

Five causes of hyperplasia

Increased hormone stimulation (ie endometrial hyperplasia)
Chronic irritation (bronchial mucus glands in smokers)
Chemical imbalance (hypocalcemia-parathyroid hypertrophy)
Stimulating antibodies (Grave's disease)
Viral infections (HPV)

9

Labile cells

Continuously divide (bone marrow stem cells)

10

Stable cells

Resting in G0, can re-enter cell cycle if stimulated
(hepatocytes, astrocytes, SM cells)

11

Permanent cells

Cannot divide
(neurons, skeletal/cardiac muscle)

12

Squamous to glandular epithelium

Metaplasia due to acid reflux in distal esophagus (Barrett's)

13

Presence of Paneth cells in stomach

Metaplasia due to H. pylori

14

Glandular to squamous epithelium

Bronchus in smokers
Endocervix

15

Transitional to squamous epithelium

Schistosoma haematobium infection of urinary bladder

16

Mesenchymal metaplasia

Bone developing in areas of muscle trauma

17

Mechanism of metaplasia

Reprogramming stem cells to utilize progeny cells with different gene expression

18

Is metaplasia reversible?

Usually

19

Risk factor of HPV

Squamous dysplasia of the cervix

20

Risk factor of cigarette smoke

Squamous dysplasia of the bronchus

21

Risk factor of UV light, chronic irritation, or 3rd degree burn

Squamous dysplasia

22

What characterizes dysplasia?

Disorderly proliferation of cells
Increased mitotic activity

23

Is dysplasia reversible?

Sometimes if stimulus removed

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