Systems Microbiology EC Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Systems Microbiology EC Deck (104):
1

Normal dominant flora in Skin

Staph. epidermidis

2

Normal dominant flora in Nose

Staph epidermidis
Staph. aureus (colonized)

3

Normal dominant flora in Oropharynx

Viridans group strep.

4

Normal dominant flora in Dental plaque

Strep. mutans

5

Normal dominant flora in Colon

Bacteriodes fragilis > E. coli

6

Normal dominant flora in Vagina

Lactobacillus
(colonized by E. coli and group B strep)

7

Food poisoning from contaminated seafood

Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Vibrio vulnificus (also wound infections w/ water/shellfish)

8

Food poisoning from Reheated rice

Bacillus cereus

9

Food poisoning from Meats, Mayonnaise, Custard

S. aureus (preformed toxin)

10

Food poisoning from Reheated meat dishes

Clostridium perfringens

11

Food poisoning from Improperly canned foods (bulging cans)

Clostridium botulinum

12

Food poisoning caused by Undercooked meat

E. coli O157:H7

13

Food poisoning caused by Poultry, Meat, and Eggs

Salmonella

14

Bugs that can mimic appendicitis

Yersinia enterocolitica
Salmonella
Campylobacter jejuni

15

Bloody diarrhea: Comma/S-shaped, grow at 42 degrees C

Campylobacter jejuni

16

Bloody diarrhea: Lactose negative, flagellar motility, fish/turtle/poultry/egg reservoir

Salmonella

17

Bloody diarrhea: Lactose negative, very low ID50, produces toxin

Shigella (shiga toxin)

18

Bloody diarrhea: Can cause HUS, Shiga-like toxin

EHEC O157:H7

19

Bloody diarrhea: Invades colonic mucosa

EIEC

20

Bloody diarrhea: Day-care outbreaks, pseudoappendicitis

Yersinia enterocolitica

21

Bloody diarrhea: Protozoan

Entamoeba histolytica

22

Watery diarrhea: Traveler's diarrhea, ST and LT toxins

ETEC

23

Watery diarrhea: Comma-shaped, rice-water diarrhea

Vibrio cholerae

24

Watery diarrhea: Pseudomembranous

C. dif (can sometimes be bloody)

25

Watery diarrhea: Also causes gas gangrene

C. perfringens

26

Watery diarrhea: by Protozoa

Giardia
Cryptosporidium (immunocompromised)

27

Watery diarrhea: Viruses

Rotavirus
Norovirus

28

Causes of pneumonia in Neonates

Group B strep
E. coli

29

Causes of pneumonia in Children

"Runts May Cough Chunky Sputum"

RSV
Mycoplasma
Chlamydia
C. pneumoniae
Strep. pneumo

30

Causes of pneumonia in Adults 18-40

Mycoplasma (walking pneumonia)
C. pneumoniae
Strep. pneumo

31

Causes of pneumonia in Adults 40-65

S. pneumo
H. influenzae
Anaerobes
Viruses
Mycoplasma

32

Causes of pneumonia in Elderly (65+)

S. pneumo
Influenza virus
Anaerobes
H. influenzae
Gram negative rods

33

Causes of nosocomial pneumonia

Staph.
Enteric gram - rods

34

Causes of pneumonia in immunocompromised

Staph.
Enteric gram - rods
Fungi
Viruses
Pneumocystis jirovecii in HIV (CD4<200)

35

Causes of aspiration pneumonia

Anaerobes

36

Causes of pneumonia in Alcoholic/IV drug user

S. pneumo
Klebsiella
Staph

37

Causes of pneumonia in CF

Pseudomonas
S. aureus
S. pneumo

38

Post-viral causes of pneumonia

Staph
H. influenzae
S. pneumo

39

Causes of atypical pneumonia

Mycoplasma
Legionella
Chlamydia

40

Causes of meningitis in Newborn

Group B strep
E. coli
Listeria

41

Causes of meningitis in Children (6mo-6yrs)

Strep. pneumo
Neisseria meningitidis (w/ purpura)
H. influenzae (in unvaccinated)
Enterovirus

42

Causes of meningitis 6-60yrs

S. pneumo
N. meningitidis (esp. in teens)
Enterovirus
HSV

43

Causes of meningitis 60+

S. pneumo
Gram - rods
Listeria

44

How do you treat meningitis

Ceftriaxone + Vancomycin (add Ampicillin for Listeria)

45

CSF findings in bacterial meningitis

Opening pressure: Increased
Cell type: Increase PMNs
Protein: Increased
Sugar: Decreased

46

CSF findings in Fungal/TB meningitis

Opening pressure: Increased
Cell type: Increased lymphocytes
Protein: Increased
Sugar: Decreased

47

CSF findings in Viral meningitis

Opening pressure: Increased/normal
Cell type: Increased lymphocytes
Protein: Increased/Normal
Sugar: Normal

48

Osteomyelitis with no other information available

S. aureus

49

Osteomyelitis and sexually active

N. gonorrhoeae (rare-septic arthritis more common)

50

Osteomyelitis in Diabetic or IV drug user

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Serratia

51

Osteomyelitis in Sickle cell

Salmonella

52

Osteomyelitis in Prosthetic replacement

S. aureus
S. epidermidis

53

Osteomyelitis in Vertebrae

TB (Pott's disease)

54

Osteomyelitis due to cat/dog bites or scratches

Pasteurella multocida

55

What does a positive leukocyte esterase test mean?

Bacterial UTI

56

What does a positive nitrite test mean?

Gram negative bacterial UTI

57

What is the leading cause of UTI?

E. coli

58

2nd leading cause of community acquired UTI in sexually active women

Staph. saprophyticus

59

3rd leading cause of UTI w/ large mucoid capsule and viscous colonies

Klebsiella pneumo

60

Nosocomial UTI that are drug resistant

Serratia marcescens (produce red pigment)
Enterobacter cloacae

61

UTI: motility/swarming on agar, urease +, associated with struvite stones

Proteus mirabilis

62

Nosocomial UTI w/ blue/green pigment and fruity odor, drug resistant

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

63

Hemorrhagic cystitis

Adenovirus

64

Acute urethral syndrome in women associated with intercoarse

Chlamydia trachomatis

65

Mother to fetus infections

ToRCHHS

Toxoplasma gondii
Rubella
CMV
HIV
HSV-2
Syphilis

66

Toxoplasma gonii (Transmission, Maternal, Neonatal)

Cat feces or ingestion of undercooked meat

Mother asymptomatic

Neonate:
Chorioretinitis
Hydrocephalus
Intracranial calcifications

67

Rubella (Transmission, Maternal, Neonatal)

Respiratory droplets

Mother: Rash, Lymphadenopathy, Arthritis

Neonate:
PDA
Cataracts
Deafness
"Blueberry muffin" rash

68

CMV (Transmission, Maternal, Neonatal)

Sexual contact, organ transplants

Mother asymptomatic (or mononucleosis like)

Neonate:
Hearing loss
Seizures
Petechial rash "blueberry muffin"

69

HIV (Transmission, Maternal, Neonatal)

Sexual, needlestick

Mother variable depending on CD4 count

Neonate:
Recurring infections
Chronic diarrhea

70

HSV-2 (Transmission, Maternal, Neonatal)

Skin or mucous membrane contact

Mother asymptomatic (other than lesions)

Neonate:
Encephalitis
Vesicular lesions

71

Syphilis (Transmission, Maternal, Neonatal)

Sexual

Mother: Chancre (primary), Disseminated rash (secondary)

Neonate:
Stillbirth
Hydrops fetalis
Notched teeth
Saddle nose
Short maxilla
Saber shins (curved)
CN VIII deafness

72

Child with fine truncal rash that begins at head and descends; postauricular lymphadenopathy

Rubella virus

73

Child with cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and blue white (Koplik) spots on buccal mucosa. Rash begins at head and descends.

Measles virus

74

Child with vesicular rash beginning on trunk. Spreads to face and extremities with lesions of different age.

VZV (chickenpox)

75

Infant with several days of high fever develops macular rash. Febrile seizures.

HHV-6 (roseola)

76

Child with "slapped cheek" rash on face (can cause hydrops fetalis in utero)

Parvovirus B19 (erythema infectiosum)

77

Child with erythematous, sandpaper-like rash with fever and sore throat and strawberry tongue.

Step. pyogenes (scarlet fever)

78

Child with vesicular rash on palms and soles. Ulcers in oral mucosa.

Coxsackievirus A (Hand-Foot-Mouth disease)

79

Urethritis, Cervicitis, PID, Prostatitis, Epididymitis, Arthritis, Creamy purulent discharge

Gonorrhea

80

Painless chancre

Primary syphilis (T. pallidum)

81

Fever, Lymphadenopathy, Skin rash, Condylomata lata

Secondary syphilis (T. pallidum)

82

Gummas, Tabes dorsalis, General paresis, Aortitis, Argyll Robertson pupil (accommodates but not react)

Tertiary syphilis (T. pallidum)

83

Painful genital ulcer, inguinal adenopathy

Chancroid (H. ducreyi "it's so painful, you DO CRY"

84

Painful penile vulvar or cervical vesicles and ulcers. Fever, headache, myalgia.

Genital herpes (HSV-2)

85

Urethritis, Cervicitis, Conjunctivitis, Reiter's syndrome (reactive arthritis), PID

Chlamydia (D-K)

86

Infection of lymphatics, genital ulcers, lymphadenopathy, rectal strictures

Lymphogranuloma venereum (C. trachomatis L1-L3)

87

Vaginitis, Strawberry-colored mucosa, motile in wet prep

Trichomonas. vaginalis

88

Opportunistic infections, Kaposi's sarcoma (caused by HHV-8), Lymphoma

AIDS (HIV)

89

Genital warts, koilocytes

Condylomata acuminata (HPV-6 and 11)

90

STD w/ jaundice

HBV

91

Noninflammatory, malodorous discharge "fishy", Positive whiff test, clue cells, not exclusively and STD

Bacterial vaginosis (Gardnerella vaginalis)

92

Cervical motion tenderness, Purulent cervical discharge. (Diagnosis, Causes, and Complications)

PID

Chlamydia and Gonorrhea

Salpingitis (ectopic pregnancy, infertility, chronic pelvic pain, adhesions), Endometritis, Hydrosalpinx, Tubo-ovarian abscess

Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome- Liver capsule infection with "violin string" adhesion to parietal peritoneum.

93

Nosocomial infections from newborn nursery

CMV
RSV

94

Nosocomial infections from urinary catheterization

E. coli
Proteus mirabilis

95

Nosocomial infection from respiratory equipment

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

"think AIRuginosa for air or burns"

96

Nosocomial infection from dialysis

HBV

97

Nosocomial infection from Hyperalimentation (overeating, TPN)

Candida albicans

98

Nosocomial infection due to water aerosols

Legionella

99

Unimmunized child with rash beginning at head and descending with postauricular lymphadenopathy

Rubella

100

Unimmunized child with rash beginning at head and descending. Rash preceded by cough, coryza (respiratory inflammation), conjunctivitis, blue-white (Koplik) spots on buccal mucosa.

Measles

101

Unimmunized child with Meningitis. Microbe colonizing nasopharynx.

H. influenzae

102

Unimmunized child with Meningitis. Can lead to myalgia and paralysis.

Poliovirus

103

Unimmunized child with pharyngitis with grayish oropharyngeal exudate ("pseudomembranes" may obstruct airway). Painful throat.

C. diphtheriae (toxin causes necrosis in pharynx, head, and CNS)

104

Unimmunized child with Epiglottitis, fever with dysphagia, drooling. Difficulty breathing due to edematous "cherry red" epiglottis

H. influenzae (sometimes occurs in immunized children)

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