Key Associations EC Flashcards Preview

Evan's Step 1 Prep Material > Key Associations EC > Flashcards

Flashcards in Key Associations EC Deck (134):
1

Actinic (solar) keratosis

Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma

2

Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury

Cushing's ulcer (increase ICP stimulates vagal gastric secretions)

3

Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns

Curling's ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)

4

Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon

Skip lesions (Chrohn's disease)

5

Aneurism, dissecting

Hypertension

6

Aortic aneurism, abdominal and descending aorta

Atherosclerosis

7

Aortic aneurism, arch

Tertiary syphilis (syphilitic aortitis), vasa vasorum destruction

8

Aortic aneurism, ascending

Marfan's syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)

9

Atrophy of the mammillary bodies

Wernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)

10

Autosplenectomy

Sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin S)

11

Bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer

H. pylori

12

Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)

Strep. pneumoniae

13

Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)

Group B strep (newborns)
Strep. pneumoniae/Neisseria meningitidis (kids)

14

Benign melanocytic nevus

Spitz nevus (most common in first two decades)

15

Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency

Bernard-Soulier syndrome (defect in platelet adhesion to vWF)

16

Brain tumor (adults)

Supratentorial: Metastasis> Astrocytoma (glioblastoma multiforme) > Meningioma > Schwannoma

17

Brain tumor (kids)

Infratentorial: Medulloblastoma (cerebellum)

Supratentorial: Craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)

18

Breast cancer

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma

19

Breast mass

Fibrocystic change (esp. pre-menopaulsal)
Carcinoma (esp. post-menopausal)

20

Breast tumor (benign)

Fibroadenoma

21

Cardiac primary tumor (kids)

Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis

22

Cardiac manifestation of lupus

Lubman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting both sides of mitral valve)

23

Cardiac tumor (adults)

Metatstasis
Primary Myxoma (4:1 L to R atrium; "ball and valve")

24

Cerebellar tonsillar herniation

Chiari malformation (often presents with progressive hydrocephalus or syringomyelia)

25

Chronic arrhythmia

Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)

26

Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)

Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)

27

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina

DES exposure in utero

"it's CLEAR that your mother was on DES"

28

Compression fracture

Osteoporosis

type I: postmenopausal woman
type II: elderly man or woman

29

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension

21-hydroxylase deficiency

30

Congenital cardiac anomaly

VSD

31

Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)

32

Constrictive pericarditis

Tuberculosis (developing world)
SLE (developed world)

33

Coronary artery involved in thrombosis

LAD > RCA > LCA

34

Cretinism

Iodine deficit/hypoparathyroidism

35

Cushing's syndrome

Iatrogenic (from corticosteroids)
Adrenocortical adenoma (secretes excess cortisol)
ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma
Paraneoplastic Cushing's (due to ACTH secretion by tumors)

36

Cyanosis (early; less common)

Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great vessels, truncus arteriosus

37

Cyanosis (late; more common)

VSD, ASD, PDA

38

Death in CML

Blast crisis

39

Death in SLE

Lupus nephropathy

40

Dementia

Alzheimer's disease
Multiple infarcts

41

Demyelinating disease in young woman

Multiple sclerosis

42

DIC

Severe sepsis
Obstetric complications
Cancer
Burns
Trauma/Major surgery

43

Dietary deficit

Iron

44

Diverticulum in pharynx

Zenker's diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)

45

Ejection click

Aortic/pulmonary stenosis

46

Esophageal cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide)
Adenocarcinoma (US)

47

Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)

S. aureus
B. cereus

48

Glomerulonephritis (adults)

Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)

49

Gynecologic malignancy

Endometrial carcinoma (US)
Cervical carcinoma (world)

50

Heart murmur, congenital

Mitral valve prolapse

51

Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis

Mitral > Aortic (rheumatic fever) > Tricuspid (IV drug use)

52

Helminth infection (US)

Enterobius vermicularis
Ascaris lumbricoides

53

Hematoma-epidural

Rupture of the middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)

54

Hematoma-subdural

Rupture of the bridging veins (crescent shaped)

55

Hemochromatosis

Multiple blood transfusions

Hereditary HFE mutation (can result in CHF, "bronze diabetes", increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)

56

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Cirrhotic liver (Hep. B, Hep C, alcoholism, & hemochromatosis)

57

Hereditary bleeding disorder

von Willebrand's disease

58

Hereditary harmless jaundice

Gilbert's syndome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

59

HLA-B27

Ankylosing spondylitis
Reiter's syndrome
Ulverative colitis
Uveitis
Psoriasis

60

HLA-DR3 or DR4

Diabetes mellitus I
Rheumatoid arthritis
SLE

61

Holosystolic murmur

VSD
Tricuspid regurgitation
Mitral regurgitation

62

Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis

Virchow's triad (results in venous thrombosis)

63

Secondary hypertension

Renal disease

64

Hypoparathyroidism

Accidental excision during thyroidectomy

65

Hypopituitarism

Pituitary adenoma (benign)

66

Infection secondary to blood transfusion

Hep. C

67

Infections in chronic granulomatous disease

Staph. aureus (cat+)
E. coli (cat+)
Aspergillus (cat+)

68

Kidney stones

Calcium=radiopaque

Struvite (ammonium)=radiopaque (formed by urease + organisms such as Proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus)

Uric acid=radiolucent

69

Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected left to right becomes right to left)

Eisenmenger's syndrome (cause by ASD, VSD, PDA)

Results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia

70

Liver disease

Alcoholic cirrhosis

71

Lysosomal storage disease

Gaucher's disease

72

Male cancer

Prostatic carcinoma

73

Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever

Hodgkin's lymphoma

74

Malignancy (kids)

ALL
Medulloblastoma (cerebellum)

75

Mental retardation

Down syndrome
Fragile X syndrome

76

Metastases to bone

Prostate > Breast > Lung > Thyroid > Testes

77

Metastases to brain

Lung > Breast > Genitourinary > Osteosarcoma > Melanoma > GI

78

Metastases to liver

Colon >> somach > pancreas

79

Mitochondrial inheritance

Disease occurs in both males and females
Inherited through female only

80

Mitral valve stenosis

Rheumatic heart disease

81

Mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease

ALS

82

Myocarditis

Coxsackie B

83

Nephrotic syndrome (adults)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

84

Nephrotic syndrome (kids)

Minimal change disease

85

Neuron migration failure

Kallmann syndrome (hypogonadotripic hypogonadism and anosmia)

86

Nosocomial pneumonia

Klebsiella
E. coli
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

87

Obstruction of male urinary tract

BPH

88

Opening snap

Mitral stenosis

89

Opportunistic infection in AIDS

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia

90

Osteomyelitis

Staph. aureus

91

Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease

Salmonella

92

Osteomyelitis with IV drug use

Pseudomonas
Staph. aureus

93

Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer

Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)

94

Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)

Serous cystadenoma

95

Ovarian tumor (malignant)

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

96

Pancreatitis (acute)

Gallstones
Alcohol

97

Pancreatitis (chronic)

Alcohol (adults)
Cystic fibrosis (kids)

98

Patient with ALL/CLL/AML/CML

ALL=child
CLL=adult >60
AML=adult~65
CML=adult 30-60

99

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Chlamydia trachomatis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae

100

Philadelphia chromosome

t(9;22) (bcr-abl)

CML

"C-Me-Leave on the bcr-abl train to Philidelphia at 9:22"

101

Pituitary tumor

Prolactinoma
Somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma

102

Primary bone tumor (adults)

Multiple myeloma

103

Primary amenorrhea

Turner syndrome (45, XO)

104

Primary hyperaldosteronism

Adenoma of adrenal cortex

105

Primary hyperparathyroidism

Adenomas
Hyperplasia
Carcinoma

106

Primary liver cancer

Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, alpha-1 anti trypsin deficiency)

107

Pulmonary hypertension

COPD

108

Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities

Buerger's disease (strongly associated with tobacco)

109

Renal tumor

Renal cell carcinoma

Associated with von Hippel-Lindau and cigarette smoking
Paraneoplastic syndrome (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)

110

Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause

Cor pulmonale

111

S3 (protodiastolic gallop)

Increased ventricular filling (left to right shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])

112

S4 (presystolic gallop)

Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)

113

Secondary hyperparathyroidism

Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease

114

Sexually transmitted disease

Chlamydia (usually coinfected with gonorrhea)

115

SIADH

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

116

Site of diverticula

Sigmoid colon

117

Sites of atherosclerosis

Abdominal aorta > coronary artery > popliteal artery > carotid artery

118

Stomach cancer

Adenocarcinoma

119

Stomach ulceration and high gastrin levels

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)

120

t(14;18)

Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)

121

t(8;14)

Burkitt lymphoma (c-myc activation)

122

t(9;22)

Philadelphia chromosome
CML (bcr-abl fusion)

123

Temporal arteritis

Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery

Polymyalgia rheumatica

124

Testicular tumor

Seminoma

125

Thyroid cancer

Papillary carcinoma

126

Tumor in women

Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)

127

Tumor of infancy

Hemangioma (usually regress spontaneously by childhood)

128

Tumor of adrenal medulla (adults)

Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)

129

Tumor of adrenal medulla (kids)

Neuroblastoma (malignant)

130

Type of Hodgkin's

Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)

131

Type of non-Hodgkin's

Diffuse large cell

132

UTI

E. coli
Staph saprophyticus (young women)

133

Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe

HSV-1

134

Vitamin deficiency (US)

Folate

Pregnant woman are at high risk
Body stores only 3-4 month supply
Prevent neural tube defects

Decks in Evan's Step 1 Prep Material Class (72):