articulations: selected articulations in depth. (Exam 3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in articulations: selected articulations in depth. (Exam 3) Deck (103):
1

What does the articular disc do in the sterno clavicular joint

it splits the joint into two separate synovial joint cavities

2

What range of movements does the sternoclavicular joint allow

elevation, depression, and circumduction

3

What does the articular disc do in the acromioclavicular joint

it splits the joint into two separate synovial joint cavities

4

What strengthens the fibrous joint capsule of the acromioclavicular joint superiorly

acromioclavicular ligament

5

What binds the clavicle to the coracoid process

coracoclavicular ligament

6

What is a shoulder seperation

dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint

7

Edema

swelling

8

What joint has the greatest range of motion in the body

the glenohumeral joint

9

What is the glenoid labrum

fibrocartilage that encircles and covers the surface of the glenoid cavity

10

What does the glenoid labrum do

it helps to deepen the concavity of the glenoid cavity to help stabilize the head of the humerus in the glenohumeral joint

11

What protects the shoulder joint from above

an arch formed by the coracoid and acromion processes of the scapula, and by the clavicle

12

Where does the loose articular capsule attache on the humerus

the surgical neck

13

Where does most of the glenohumeral joint's strength come from

the rotator cuff

14

What is another name for the rotator cuff

musculotendinous cuff

15

What are the rotator cuff muscles

infraspinatus, subscapularis, supraspinatus, and teres minor

16

Where do the tendons of the muscles of the rotator cuff fuse

the joint capsule

17

Where is the weakest area of the glenohumeral joint and why

the inferior portion because it lacks rotator cuff muscles

18

What ligament extends across the space between the coracoid process and the acromion

coracoacromial ligament

19

What is a thickening of the superior part of the joint capsule and runs from the coracoid process to the humeral head

coracohumeral ligament

20

What are three thickenings of the anterior portion of the articular capsule of the glenohumeral joint

glenohumeral ligaments

21

What is a narrow sheet that extends between the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus

transverse humeral ligament

22

What is the humeroulnar joint

where the trochlear notch of the ulna articulates with the trochlea of the humerus

23

What type of joint is the humeroulnar joint

uniaxial hinge joint

24

What is the humeroradial joint

where the capitulum of the humerus articulates with the head of the radius

25

olecranon bursa

a large bursa of the elbow joint

26

Why is the elbow and extremely stable joint

the articular capsule is fairly thick, the humerus and ulna interlock very well, there are multiple strong ligaments

27

What is the radial collateral ligament

the ligament responsible for stabilizing the elbow on the laterale side

28

What is another name for radial collateral ligament

lateral collateral ligament

29

What is the ulnar collateral ligament

the ligament responsible for stabilizing the elbow on the medial sie

30

What is another name for the ulnar collateral ligament

medial collateral ligament

31

What is the anular ligament

The ligament that surrounds the head of the radius and binds the proximal head of the radius to the ulna

32

What does anular mean

ring-shaped

33

Subluxation

Incomplete dislocation, in which the contact between the bony joint surfaces is altered, but they are still in partial contact.

34

Subluxation of the head of the radius

The head of the radius is pulled out of the anular ligament

35

What are the common names for subluxation of the head of the radius

Nursemaid's elbow, pulled elbow, slipped elbow

36

What age does subluxation of the head of the radius most often occur

younger than 5

37

little league elbow is partially caused by

when the head of the radius is pulled back and forcefully collides with capitulum immediately after pitching

38

what are the names of the wrist joint

radiocarpal articulation or carpus

39

What composes the radiocarpal articulation

three proximal carpal bones and the distal end of the radius

40

Why is the ulna not considered part of the carpus

There is a fibrocartilaginous articular disc that separates the ulna and the carpal bones

41

What type of articulation is the radiocarpal joint

condyloid articulation

42

What movements does the radiocarpal joint permit

flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction

43

What is the common name for metacarpophalangeal joints

knuckles

44

What type of joint is a metacarpophalangeal joint for finger 2-5

biaxial condyloid joint

45

What type of joint is a metacarpophalangeal joint for finger 1

uniaxial hinge joint

46

Where is all the support for a metacarpophalangeal joint

on the anterior, medial, and lateral sides. Thats why fingers jam posteriorly

47

What is the name of the articulation that is formed by the sacrum and the ilium

sacroiliac joint

48

What surfaces form the sacroiliac joint

auricular surfaces

49

What is the overly descriptive name of the type of joint of the sacroiliac joint

uniaxial diarthrotic gliding (planar) joint that is amphiarthrotic

50

What is the name of the coxal joint

acetabulofemoral joint

51

acetabular labrum

runs along the rim of the acetabulum and rings the head of the femur as it articulates with the acetabulum

52

What does labrum mean

a ring of fibrocartilage around the edge of the articular surface of a bone

53

What motions is the hip joint capable of

flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, circumduction

54

What is the common name of the coxal joint

hip joint

55

Where does the articular capsule of the acetabulofemoral joint extend

from the acetabulum to the trochanters of the femur, enclosing both femoral head and neck

56

What are the fibers of the articular capsule

retinacular fibers

57

What supplies almost all of the blood to the head and neck of the femur

The retinacular arteries

58

Where do the retinacular arteries travel

through the retinacular fibers

59

What is the other name of the ligamentum teres

ligament of the head of the femur

60

What does the ligamentum teres do

contain a small artery the supplies some of the blood to the head of the femur

61

Intertorchanteric fractures

occur distally to or outside the hip articular capsule (extracapsular)

62

Subcapital fractures

occur within the hip articular capsule. in elderly people

63

avascular necrosis

death of bone tissue due to lack of blood

64

What are the articulations of the knee joint

tibiofemoral joint, patellofemoral joint

65

tibiofemoral joint

articulations between the condyles of the femur and the condyles of the tibia

66

Patellofemoral joint

articulation between the patella and the patella surface of the anterior distal femur

67

Where is the articular capsule of the knee joint

medial, lateral, and posterior regions of the knee joint

68

What passes over the anterior surface of the knee joint

quadriceps femoris muscle tendon

69

patellar ligament

extend inferiorly to the patella and attaches on the tibial tuberosity

70

Lateral collateral ligament

reinforces the lateral surface of the knee joint

71

varus deciation

hyperadduction of the lower leg

72

Medial collateral ligament

Reinforces the medial surface of the knee joint

73

Valgus deviation

hyperabduction of the lower leg

74

Anteriorlateral ligament

ALL. Stabilizing ligament on the front surface of the knee

75

Medial/Lateral Meniscus

C-shaped fibrocartilage pads located on the condyles of the tibia

76

Anterior cruciate ligament

ACL. Runs from the posterior femur to the anterior side of the tibia

77

Posterior cruciate ligament

PCL. runs from the anterioinferior femur to the posterior side of the tibia

78

Locking of the knee

Tibia rotates laterally so as to tighten the ACL and squeeze the meniscus between the tibia and femur

79

Anterior drawer test

A physician gently tugs anteriorly on the tibia to test for ACL injury

80

Posterior drawer test

A physician gently pushes posteriorly on the tibia to the for PCL injury

81

Unhappy triad

injury of tibial collateral ligament, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate ligament

82

Arthroscopy

Type of conservative surgical treatment where a small incision is made in the knee and then an arthroscope in inserted into the knee

83

Arthroscope

An instrument with a camera and light source

84

Grafting

process of surgically transplanting healthy tissue to replace diseased or damaged tissue

85

Autograft

transplant of one's own tissue

86

Syngenetic graft

transplant from identical twins

87

allograft

transplant from cadaver

88

Heterograft

transplant from an animal

89

Talocrural joint

Ankle

90

What motion is permited by talo crural joint

dorsiflexion and plantar flexion

91

Anterior talofibular ligament

passes anteriorly from the malleolus of the fibula to the talus

92

Posterior talofibular ligament

passes posteriorly from the malleolus of the fibula to the talus

93

Calcaneofibular ligament

runs inferiorly from the malleolus of the fibula to the calcaneus

94

sprain

stretching or tearing of the ligament without fracture or dislocation of the joint

95

High ankle sprain

syndesmotic ankle sprain. disrupted interosseous membrane that holds the distal ends of the tibia and fibula together

96

intertarsal joints

articulations between the tarsal bones

97

metatarsophalangeal joints

between metatarsals and the proximal phalanges of the toes

98

interphalangeal joints

between the phalanges of the toes

99

What happens to active joints

They develop larger and thicker capsules and supporting ligaments

100

Arthiritis

A group of inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints

101

Gouty arthiritis

Increase levels of uric acid. Urate crystals form. treated with anti-inflammatories

102

osteoartritis

Most common form of arthritis. articular cartilage breaks down. Bone on bone rubbing. Mostly weight bearing joints. Treated with anti-inflammatory

103

Rheumatoid

Auto-immune disease. Synovial fluid increases causing swelling. Ankylosis occurs. Anti-inflammatory, corticosteroids, methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine