August 10, 2015 - Pharmacology Basics Flashcards Preview

COURSE 1 > August 10, 2015 - Pharmacology Basics > Flashcards

Flashcards in August 10, 2015 - Pharmacology Basics Deck (18):
1

Pharmacology

The science concerned with drugs, their sources, appearance, chemistry, actions and uses.

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Drug Definition

Any substance other than food which is used in the prevention, diagnosis, alleviation, treatment, or cure of disease.

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Pharmacodynamics

What a drug does to the body.

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Pharmacokinetics

What your body does to a drug.

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ADME

After a drug has entered the body.

 

Absorption

Distribution

Metabolism

Elimination

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Absorption of a Drug

Passage of a drug from its site of administration into the systemic circulation.

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Factors Affecting Absorption

- Surface area

- Blood flow

- Contact time

- pH

- Food

- Route of administration

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Bioavailability

The fraction of a drug that reaches systemic circulation after a particular route of administration.

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First Pass Metabolism

The drug gets filtered through the liver before going into systemic circulation. The amount of the drug that makes it through the liver is the bioavailability of the drug.

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Apparent Volume of Distribution

Theoretical volume of fluid into which the drug is distributed. 

 

Volume of distribution = total amount of drug in the body / [drug blood plasma]

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Therapeutic Index

The comparison of the amount of a drug that causes the therapeautic effect to the amount that causes toxicity.

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Efficacy

The maximal response of a drug. This is seen by the plateau at the top of the curve.

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Potency

Potency is 50% of the maximal response (efficacy).

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Agonist

A drug that binds to a receptor and produces a functional response. It may be a full agonist, a partial agonist (doesn't reach as high), or an inverse agonist (acts to produce the opposite effect).

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Antagonist

A chemical that can decrease or abolish the efefct of an agonist at the level of receptor or produce a response that is opposite to the agonist. It may be competitive in which the agonists and antagonists are competing for the same active site, or may be non-competitive in which it binds allosterically.

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Steady State Concentration

When the rate of drug imput equals the rate of drug elimination.

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Loading Dose

When a massive dose is administered to rapidly establish the effective concentration of the drug. Maintenance doses are then administered afterwards to maintain the desired steady-state.

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