August 12, 2015 - Introduction to Oncology Flashcards Preview

COURSE 1 > August 12, 2015 - Introduction to Oncology > Flashcards

Flashcards in August 12, 2015 - Introduction to Oncology Deck (15):

Hallmarks of Cancer

1. Evading apoptosis

2. Self-sufficiency in growth signals

3. Insensitivity to anti-growth signals

4. Tissue invasion and metastasis

5. Limitless reproductive capability

6. Sustained angiogenesis


Principles for an Effective Screening Program

1. Disease has serious consequences

2. Disease is relatively common

3. Test detects disease before a critical point

4. Test is accurate

5. Test causes little morbidity/mortality

6. Test is affordable and available

7. A treatment exists that is more effective when applied before symptoms appear and is relatively safe


Cancer Screening in Canada

1. Cervical cancer (PAP smear)

2. Breast cancer (mammograms)

3. Colorectal cancer (colonoscopy)

4. Lung cancer (low-dose CT)

5. Prostate cancer (DRE and PSA)


Non-Specific Symptoms of Cancer

1. Weight loss

2. Fever

3. Night sweats


TNM Staging System

T - Size of the tumour and degree of spread

N - spread of cancer to nearby lymph nodes

M - presence or absene of metastasis


T Staging System

T0 - No evidence of primary tumour

T1 - Tumour invades submucosa

T2 - Tumour invades muscularis propria

T3 - Tumour invades through the muscularis propria into the subserosa, or into non-peritonealized pericolic or perirectal tissues

T4 - Tumour directly invades other organs or structures, and/or performates visceral peritoneum.


N Staging System

N0 - no regional lymph node metastasis

N1 - Metastasis in 1 to 3 regional lymph nodes

N2 - Metastasis to 4 or more regional lymph nodes


M Staging System

M0 - no distant metastasis

M1 - distant metastasis


Colorectal Cancer: Stage 1

T1N0M0 or T1N0M0


Colorectal Cancer: Stage 2

T3N0M0 or T4N0M0


Has not spread to regional lymph nodes yet.


Colorectal Cancer: Stage 3

Cancer has spread to regional lymph nodes.

T3N1M0 or T4N1M0


Colorectal Cancer: Stage 4

Cancer has spread to other areas of the body.

T3N2M1 or T4N2M1


Age as a Prognostic Factor

Younger people typically have a worse prognosis. For a cancer to develop in young people, typically bad things need to happen.


ECOG Performance Status

Grade 0 - able to carry on with all pre-disease performance without restriction

Grade 1 - Restricted in physically strenuous activity, but ambulatory and able to carry out work of a light or sedentary nature

Grade 2 - Ambulatory and capable of all self-care, but confined to bed or chair for more than 50% of waking hours

Grade 3 - Capable of only limited self-care, and confined to a bed or a chair for more than 50% of waking hours

Grade 4 - Completely disabled. Cannot carry out self-care. Totally confined to a bed or chair


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