August 12, 2015 - Introduction to Oncology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in August 12, 2015 - Introduction to Oncology Deck (15):
1

Hallmarks of Cancer

1. Evading apoptosis

2. Self-sufficiency in growth signals

3. Insensitivity to anti-growth signals

4. Tissue invasion and metastasis

5. Limitless reproductive capability

6. Sustained angiogenesis

2

Principles for an Effective Screening Program

1. Disease has serious consequences

2. Disease is relatively common

3. Test detects disease before a critical point

4. Test is accurate

5. Test causes little morbidity/mortality

6. Test is affordable and available

7. A treatment exists that is more effective when applied before symptoms appear and is relatively safe

3

Cancer Screening in Canada

1. Cervical cancer (PAP smear)

2. Breast cancer (mammograms)

3. Colorectal cancer (colonoscopy)

4. Lung cancer (low-dose CT)

5. Prostate cancer (DRE and PSA)

4

Non-Specific Symptoms of Cancer

1. Weight loss

2. Fever

3. Night sweats

5

TNM Staging System

T - Size of the tumour and degree of spread

N - spread of cancer to nearby lymph nodes

M - presence or absene of metastasis

6

T Staging System

T0 - No evidence of primary tumour

T1 - Tumour invades submucosa

T2 - Tumour invades muscularis propria

T3 - Tumour invades through the muscularis propria into the subserosa, or into non-peritonealized pericolic or perirectal tissues

T4 - Tumour directly invades other organs or structures, and/or performates visceral peritoneum.

7

N Staging System

N0 - no regional lymph node metastasis

N1 - Metastasis in 1 to 3 regional lymph nodes

N2 - Metastasis to 4 or more regional lymph nodes

8

M Staging System

M0 - no distant metastasis

M1 - distant metastasis

9

Colorectal Cancer: Stage 1

T1N0M0 or T1N0M0

10

Colorectal Cancer: Stage 2

T3N0M0 or T4N0M0

 

Has not spread to regional lymph nodes yet.

11

Colorectal Cancer: Stage 3

Cancer has spread to regional lymph nodes.

T3N1M0 or T4N1M0

12

Colorectal Cancer: Stage 4

Cancer has spread to other areas of the body.

T3N2M1 or T4N2M1

13

Age as a Prognostic Factor

Younger people typically have a worse prognosis. For a cancer to develop in young people, typically bad things need to happen.

14

ECOG Performance Status

Grade 0 - able to carry on with all pre-disease performance without restriction

Grade 1 - Restricted in physically strenuous activity, but ambulatory and able to carry out work of a light or sedentary nature

Grade 2 - Ambulatory and capable of all self-care, but confined to bed or chair for more than 50% of waking hours

Grade 3 - Capable of only limited self-care, and confined to a bed or a chair for more than 50% of waking hours

Grade 4 - Completely disabled. Cannot carry out self-care. Totally confined to a bed or chair

15

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