October 1, 2015 - Neutrophilia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in October 1, 2015 - Neutrophilia Deck (16):
1

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An increase in the number of immature leukocytes in the peripheral blood.

These can include band cells, metamyelocytes, myelocytes, promyelocytes or blast cells.

2

Granulocytes

Neutrophils

Eosinophils

Basophils

3

Neutrophil Growth Factors

GM-CSF

G-CSF

SCF

We have synthetic versions of these.

4

Maturation of Neutrophils

Myeloblast

Promyelocyte

Myelocyte

Metamyelocyte

Band

Neutrophil

5

Neutrophil Function

Acting as phagocytes.

Go to sites of inflammation and engage in phagocytosis and killing of microorganisms. This creates pus.

6

Reactive Neutrophilia

"Orderly" WBC differential.

Same percentages.

7

Neoplastic Neutrophilia

"Disorderly" neutrophilia.

Ratios are not normal. Or you are seeing cells that shouldn't be present such as myelocytes, promyelocytes, and blast cells.

8

Types of Myeloproliferative Disorders

Chronic myolegenous leukemia (CML)

Primary myelofibrosis (PMF)

Polycythemia vera (PV)

Essential thrombocythemia (ET)

9

CML

Chromic myelogenous leukemia.

A clonal disorder of hematopoiesis that arises in a hematopoietic stem cell or early progenitor cell. Characterized by the dysregulated production of a particular lineage of mature myeloid cells with fairly normal differentiation. Exhibits a variable tendency to progress towards acute leukemia.

Characterised by the Philadelphia Chromosome.

10

Philadelphia Chromosome

A balanced translocation of part of chromosome 9 to chromosome 22.

Causes chimeric BCR-ABL mRNA to be translated into a functional protein.

11

Transformation by BCR-ABL

Transforms cytokine-dependent lymphoid and myeloid hematopoietic cell lines to become cytokine-independent for survival and proliferation.

Consistently activates tyrosine kinase.

12

CML Bone Marrow Findings

Hypercellular

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Diagnosis of CML

Done by the detection of the Ph Chromosome or its products (BCR-ABL fusion mRNA and Bcr-Abl protein) is required for diagnosis.

Testing through standard cytogenetic analysis, FISH, or RT-PCR.

14

Blast Phase

What CML will progress to. This can be myeloid (AML), lymphoid (ALL).

Without drugs (imatinib), medial survival was 3-6 months.

15

Treatment Options in CML

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors is first line.

16

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