An increase in the number of immature leukocytes in the peripheral blood.
These can include band cells, metamyelocytes, myelocytes, promyelocytes or blast cells.
Neutrophil Growth Factors
We have synthetic versions of these.
Maturation of Neutrophils
Acting as phagocytes.
Go to sites of inflammation and engage in phagocytosis and killing of microorganisms. This creates pus.
"Orderly" WBC differential.
Ratios are not normal. Or you are seeing cells that shouldn't be present such as myelocytes, promyelocytes, and blast cells.
Types of Myeloproliferative Disorders
Chronic myolegenous leukemia (CML)
Primary myelofibrosis (PMF)
Polycythemia vera (PV)
Essential thrombocythemia (ET)
Chromic myelogenous leukemia.
A clonal disorder of hematopoiesis that arises in a hematopoietic stem cell or early progenitor cell. Characterized by the dysregulated production of a particular lineage of mature myeloid cells with fairly normal differentiation. Exhibits a variable tendency to progress towards acute leukemia.
Characterised by the Philadelphia Chromosome.
A balanced translocation of part of chromosome 9 to chromosome 22.
Causes chimeric BCR-ABL mRNA to be translated into a functional protein.
Transformation by BCR-ABL
Transforms cytokine-dependent lymphoid and myeloid hematopoietic cell lines to become cytokine-independent for survival and proliferation.
Consistently activates tyrosine kinase.
CML Bone Marrow Findings
Diagnosis of CML
Done by the detection of the Ph Chromosome or its products (BCR-ABL fusion mRNA and Bcr-Abl protein) is required for diagnosis.
Testing through standard cytogenetic analysis, FISH, or RT-PCR.
What CML will progress to. This can be myeloid (AML), lymphoid (ALL).
Without drugs (imatinib), medial survival was 3-6 months.
Treatment Options in CML
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors is first line.