Secrete mucus and pepsinogen II.
Secrete HCl and intrinsic factor.
(Intrinsic factor is needed for the absorption of vitamin B12 later in the small intestine)
Secrete pepsinogen I
(Somatostatin acts directly on the acid-producing parietal cells thus antagonizing the stimulatory effect of histamine to reduce acid secretion.)
(Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates the secretion of HCl by the parietal cells of the stomach)
Things that will cause an increase in acid secretion
Things that will cause a decrease in acid secretion
Is caused by a non-beta islet cell (islet of Langerhands) gastrin-secreting tumor of the pancrease that stimulates the acid-secreting cells of the stomach to maximal activity, with consequent gastrointestinal mucosal ulceration. The high acidity causes multiple ulcers to form in the stomach and duodenum.
The primary tumor is usually located in the pancreas, duodenum, or abdominal lymph nodes.
TREATMENT is done by administering proton pump inhibitors and tumors may need to be surgically removed or treated with chemotherapy.
Peptic Ulcer Disease Symptoms
Abdominal pain that may be described as...
-Stabbing through the back
-Worsen with food (often gastric ulcers)
-Improve with eating (often duodenal ulcer)
Will also typically include...
-Bloating or cramping
-Nausea, vomiting (blood or coffee-grounds)
-Bloody or tarry black stolls
-Fatigue and malaise
Agressive Factors for Ulcers
- Acid, pepsin
- H. pylori
Helicobacter pylori and the World
In North America, adults are typically 20-30% positive
In developing countries, adults are 80-90% positive
Acquisition generally occurs in childhood through the drinking of contaminated water, or through oral-oral or oral-fecal routes.