Barron's: Chapter 4 - Sensation and Perception Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Barron's: Chapter 4 - Sensation and Perception Deck (65):
1

Transduction

- signals that are transformed into neural impulses

2

Sensory adaption

- decreasing responsiveness to stimuli due to constant stimulation

3

Sensory habituation (also called perceptual adaptation)

- our perception of sensations is partially due to how focused we are on them

4

Cocktail-party phenomenon

- if you are talking with a friend and someone across the room says your name, your attention will probably involuntarily switch across the room

5

Sensation

- the activation of our senses (eyes, ears, and so on)

6

Perception

- the process of understanding these sensations

7

Energy senses

- vision, hearing, and touch
- gather energy in the form of light, sound waves, and pressure

8

Chemical senses

- taste and smell

9

Vision

- dominant sense in human beings
- people use vision more than any other sense to gather information about their environment

10

Cornea

- protecting covering of eye

11

Pupil

- the muscles that control the pupil (iris) open it (dilate) to let more light in and also make it smaller to let less light in

12

Lens

- curved and flexible in order to focus the light

13

Retina

- image we see projected on retina
- like a screen on the back of your eye

14

Feature detectors

- are individual neurons—or groups of neurons—in the brain which code for perceptually significant stimuli.

15

Optic nerve

- sends impulses to a specific region in the thalamus called the later geniculate nucleus (LGN)

16

Occipital lobe

- visual cortex in it
- some researchers say that sensation ends and perception begins

17

Visible light

- the wavelengths that are visible to most human eyes

18

Rods and cones

- cones: activated by color
- rods: responds to black and white

19

Fovea

- contains the highest concentration of cones

20

Blind spot

- the sport where the optic nerve leaves the retina

21

Trichromatic theory

- hypothesizes that we have three types of cones in the retina: cones that detect the different colors blue, red, and green

22

Color blindness

- two types: dichromatic and monochromatic

23

Afterimages

- an impression of a vivid sensation (especially a visual image) retained after the stimulus has ceased

24

Opponent-process theory

- states that the sensory receptors arranged int he retina come in pairs

25

Hearing

- the ability to perceive sound by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear

26

Sound waves

- created by vibrations, which travel through the air, and are then collected by our ears

27

Amplitude

- the height of the wave and determines the loudness of the sound

28

Frequency

- the length of the waves and determines pitch, measured in megahertz

29

Cochlea

- a structure shaped like a snail's shell filled with fluid

30

Pitch theories

- theories which describe how we hear different pitches

31

Place theory

- holds that the hair cells in the cochlea respond to different frequencies of sound based on where they are located in the cochlea

32

Frequency theory

- lower tones are sensed by the rate at which the cells fire

33

Conduction deafness

- occurs when something goes wrong with the system of conducting the sound to the chochlea

34

Nerve deafness

- occurs when the hair cells in the cochlea are damaged, usually by a loud noise

35

Touch

- when our skin is indented, pierced, or experiences a change in temperature, sense of touch is activated by this energy

36

Gate-control theory

- helps explain who we experience pain the way we do

37

Taste (or gustation)

- chemicals form the food we eat are absorbed by taste buds on our tongue

38

Smell (or olfaction)

- depends on chemicals emitted by substances

39

Vestibular sense

- help with body position and balance

40

Kinesthetic sense

- help with body position and balance

41

Absolute threshold

- the smallest amount of stimulus we can detect

42

Subliminal messages

- stimuli below our absolute threshold

43

Difference threshold

- the smallest amount of change needed in a stimulus before we detect a change

44

Weber's law

- states that the change needed is proportional to the original intensity of the stimilus

45

Signal detection theory

- investigates the effects of the distractions and interference we experience while perceiving the world

46

Top-down processing

- we perceive by filling in gaps in what we sense

47

Perceptual set

- a predisposition to perceiving something in a certain way

48

Bottom-up processing

- the opposite of top-down processing, instead of using our experience to perceive an object, we use only the features of the object itself to build a complete perception

49

Gestalt rules

- describes principles that govern how we perceive groups of objects

50

Proximity

- objects that are close together are more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group

51

Similarity

- objects that are similar in appearance are more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group

52

Continuity

- objects that form a continuous form are more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group

53

Closure

- similar to top-down processing. objects that make up a recognizable image are more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group even if the image contains gaps that the mind needs to fill in

54

Constancy

- our ability to maintain a constant perception of an object despite changes

55

Size constancy

- objects closer to our eyes will produce bigger images on our retinas, but we take distance into account in our estimations of size. we keep a constant size in mind for an object and know that it does not grow or shrink in size as it moves closer or farther away

56

Shape constancy

- objects viewed from different angles will produce different shapes on our retinas, but we know the shape of an object remains constant. for example, the top of a coffee mug viewed form a certain angle will produce an elliptical image on our retinas, but we know the top is circular due to shape constancy. again, this depends on our familiar with the usual shape of the object

57

Brightness constancy

- we perceive objects as being a constant color even as the light reflecting off the object changes. for example, we will perceive a brick wall as brick red even as the daylight fades and the actual color reflected from the wall turns gray

58

Depth cues

- without depth perception we would perceive the world as a two-dimensional flat surface unable to differentiate between what is near and what is far

59

David Hubel

- discovered that groups of neurons in the visual cortex has feature detectores for vertical lines, curves, motion, and many other features of images

60

Torsten Wiesel

- discovered that groups of neurons in the visual cortex has feature detectores for vertical lines, curves, motion, and many other features of images

61

Ernst Weber

- made Weber's law which is about thresholds

62

Gustav Fechner

- he was the founder of psychophysics

63

Eleanor Gibson

- she focused on reading development and perceptual learning in infants and toddlers

64

ganglion cells

- the axons of the cells make up the optic nerve

65

optic chiasm

- the spot were our optic nerves cross each other

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