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genotype

the genetic makeup responsibile for a particular train

1

an organism's observable traits (determined by genotype and enbrironment)

phenotype

2

genetic material coding for a single gene product(peptide, rRNA, tRNA)

gene

3

the chromosomal location of a gene

locus

4

one variant of a gene

allele

5

chromosomes that code for the same set of genees, may be different alleles though(one from each parent)

homologous chromosomes

6

having tow identical alleles for a gene

homozygous

7

having two different alleles for a gene

heterozygous

8

the normal or most prebalent allel in a population

wild type

9

an allele where only one copy is necessary to yield the corresponding phenotype

dominant

10

an allele where two copies are necessary to yeild the corresponding phenotype

recessive

11

when a heterozygote has the pheotype of only 1 of the alleles ( the dominant one)

complete dominance

12

both inherited alleles are complelty expressed (ex. blood type)

codominance

13

phenotypes of the progeny that are intermediate of the parental phenotypes(snap dragons- homozygous red crossed with homozygous white gives pink)

incomplete dominance

14

when a loss of function mutation doesnt result in complete lack of a phenotype

leakage

15

the percentage of organisms having a certain genotype expressing a certain phenotype

penetrance

16

a term describing the variation in phenotpye amoung organims with a given genotype

expressivity

17

whan a single gene affects multiple traits

pleiotropism

18

when multiple genes affect a single trait

polygenism

19

when the expression of a gene is dependent upon another gene

epistatsis

20

the set of all alleles in a population

gene pool

21

interphase...meiosis 1... meiosis 2

diploidXX... haploidX.... haploid L.L...

22

G1 Protein and nucleic acid synthesis to prepare for replications producation of organelles

interphase

23

S DNA replication

Interphase

24

Recombination happens in...

Prophase I

25

longest phase, chromosemes condense and tetra fomraiton (homologous pairs), disappearance of the nuclear envelope and polarization of the centrioles (MTOC's)

Prophase I

26

Chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate, spindle fibers attach at centromeres via kinetochores

metaphase I

27

spindle fibers PULL HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES APART towards the centrioles... clevage furrow beings forming

Anaphase 1

28

nuclear membranes reform, completion of cytokinesis

telephase i

29

chromosemes condense, disappearance of the nuclear envelope and polarization of the centrioles

Prophase II

30

chromoseomes line up on metaphase plate, spindle fibers attach at centromeres via kinetochores

metaphase II

31

spindle fibers PULL SISTER CHROMATIDS APART towards the centrioles, cleavage furrow begins forming

anaphase II

32

nuclear membranes reform, completino of cytokinesis

telephase II

33

failure of tetrads to separate during meiosis I or sister chromatids in meiosis II..... Down syndrom, turner syndrome, Kleinfelter syndrome

nondisjuction

34

movement of a segment of one chromosome to another non-homologous chromosomes

translocation

35

separation of alleles into haploid gametes

law of segregation

36

genes assort independently to the progeny

law of independent assortment

37

leads to new cobinations of alleles, occurs during prophase 1 of meiosis, exchange of segments from homolougous chromosomes

recombination

38

genes on the same chromosome won't necessarily undergo independent assortment, the closer together on the chromosome the greater the linkage btw genes, the likelihood of recombination occurring btw two genes increase with the distance in teh genes

linkes genes

39

ofspring (female) have only a single X chromomes resulting from nondisjunction

Turner Syndrome(X)

40

offspring(male) XXY have an extra X crhomosome resulting from nondisjunction

kleinfelter

41

any genetic disorders coded by the mitochondrial DNA will be passed on to all offspring

mitochondrial inheritance... only mother.

42

mutations

most mutations are deleterious to the cell.... translational, transcriptional errors

43

a single base substitution

point mutation

44

point mutation leading to a codon coding for a different amino acid

missense mutation

45

point muattion leading to a premature stop codon

nonsense mutation

46

insertion or deletion leading to a change in teh reading frame of a gene

frameshift muations

47

low level of natural mutations that occur during replication.. random error

mutations in replication

48

metabolic disorders caused by muations

inborn errors fo metabolism

49

an agent that causes mutations

mutagen

50

an agent that can cause cancer

carcinogen

51

allele frequenceies remain constatn in a gene pool for a population in equilibrium

hardy weinberg equilibrium

52

hardy weinburg equilibrium

p+q=1

53

equation hardy

p^2+2pq+q^2=1

54

assumptions for equilbirium

1.Random Mating
2.No mutations
3. No selection ( natural or otherwise)
4. No migration
5. Large population size... no genetic drift

55

the ability of an organism to pass on its alleles

fitness

56

differential reporduction of an organism based upon fitness in its environment... the alleles that confer firtness will increase in frequency in the gene pool over time

natural selection

57

selection against the extremes.. for the averages

stabilizing selection

58

selection against teh avgs

disruptive (divergent) selection

59

selection against one extreme (but favoring the opposite extreme)

directional selection

60

directional selection done by humnas with selecting for traits in animals and crops

artificial selection

61

differential mating btw males and females

sexual selection

62

group of organsims that are capable of interbreeding to produce fit offspring

species

63

barrieres preventing members of different species from producing fit offspring

reproductive isolation

64

the existence of multiple phenotypes within a population

polymorphism

65

an inherited trait that confers greater fitness

adaptation

66

an adaptation to a specific function or environment

specialiization

67

the sum of the environmental requiremnts required for a species to persist, includes habitat, predators, prey, thought of as being unique for each species

ecological niche

68

increased likelihood of mating btw organisms w similar genotypes

inbreeding

69

increased likelihood of mating btw organism w different genotypes

outbreeding

70

random change in allel frquencies in a population, smaller populaitons are more suseptible to it...

genetic shift

71

dramatic decrease in size of a population making it suseptible to genetic drift

bottleneck

72

two species possess the same analogous structures unrealated to a common ancestor

convergaent evolution

73

divergence leading to distinct populations/species

divergent evolution

74

similar evolutionary changes in different species due to similar environmental pressures

parallel evolution

75

when a species requres another species as a host to live, harming the host in the process

parasitism

76

an organism requres another species as a host to live w no harm or benefit to the host

commernsalism

77

symbiotic relationship btw two organisms that confers fitness to both

mutualism

78

similarities in stages of develoment

ontogeny

79

ontogeny can be used to determine evolutionary relationships btw organisms

phylogeny

80

life was seeded extraterrestrially (meteors, cosmic dust,....)

panspermia

81

Miller-urey experiments

organic molecules can be produces form a simple mexture of gases and electricity... formeldehyde, urea, and other result

82

lipid bylayers

spontaneously form in aqueous solution via self assembly

83

orignial gentic material

RNA

84

What attributes do we associate with life?

1. heredity and reproduction
2. being distince from its environment
3. capable of growth and development
4. the ability to respond to stimuli from the environment
5. capable of homeostasis and regulation