electron donating groups increase basisty/nucleophilicity
electron withdrawing groups decreases basicity...
2 eq RNH2
Amide formation w nitrous acid
HCL, NaNO2 Odegrees
SN2 CH3Br.... adds Ch3's too the NH3 group
XS CH3I, Ag2O and H2O.... adds CH3 to N that has ethyl on each side
glucose, fructose, galactose
sucrose (glucose and fructose) and lactose (glucose and galactose) are disacharides
starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin
Dvs L sugars
D- OH on Right.... L OH on Left.....
aldose vs ketose
aldose double bond on end.... ketose double bond in middle..
pentose vs hexose
5 vs 6 member ring
furanose vs pyranose
furanose, is 5 with O... Pyranose is 6 with O
acetal vs hemi acetals
Acety.. has OR and OR group... Hemi has OR and OH group
a sterocenter can point up or down...alpha down... beta up
differ in only one sterogenic center... everything else is the same... very similar
CuSO4, base... adding an OH to the top...
amino acid sequence
held together by H bonds in the backbone... alpha and beta
organization of secondary structure... in globular proteins, hydrophobic residues are sequestered in the interior of the protein while hydrophobic residues are on the outer surface.... disulfide bonds btw cysteine residues
interattions of multiple subunits (seperate peptide chains) as in hemoglobin
membrane fluididty, steroid precurser
isoprene, menthol, viatmin A,
adenine and guanosine
cytidine, thymidine, and uracil
3 phosphates, base, and adenine. + water
2 phosphates, base and adenine,