Lecture 1 Flashcards Preview

Undeleted > Lecture 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 1 Deck (75):
0

Oculocuaneous albinism type 2 is due to

a defect in the OCA gene on chromosome 15.... different types of albinism, happens on certain chromosome.

1

Individual first recognized albinism is an inhertable trait

Archibald Garrod

2

a complete set of genetic instructions for any organism
RNA or DNA
coding system for genomic information very smiliar among organisms.

genome

3

Genome is made up of

RNA or DNA.... coding system for genomic information very similar among organisms..

4

Transmission Genetics

Encompasses basic principles of heredity and how traits are passed from one generation to the next

5

Molecular genetics

concerns the chemical nature of the gene itself and how genetic information is encoded, replicated and expressed

6

population genetics

explores the genetic composition of groups of individual members of the same species and how that composition changes geographically and with the passage of time. It is fundamentally the study of evolution

7

Early theories related to inheritance

Pangensis, inhertance of acquired characteristcs, preformationism, blending inheritance..... Why are each of them flawed??

8

developed by Gree philosophers.... specific particles (gemmules) carry inforamtion from vaious parts of the body to repoductive organs, from which they are passed to the embryo....

Pangenisis

9

Primarily made famous by Lamarch... Traits acquired in a person's lifetime become incorporated into that person's hereditary information and are passed on to offspring

inheritance of Acquired Characteristics

10

Preformationism

Individuals were already pre formed, in egg or sperm, ovist vs spermist.... homonculus.

11

Blending Inheritance

Offspring are a blend of parental traits
genetic material itself blends
once blended, genetics differences cannot be sperarted out in future generations..... male or female, clearly not blended

12

germ plasm theory

correct, all cells contian a complete set of genetic information

13

cell theory

correct, all life is composed of cells, and cells arise only from cells

14

mendelian inheritance

correct, traits are inherited in accord with defined principles

15

model organisms,
be familiar w each of these organism as we progress
properties,
why do they studies help us understand

Drosphila melanogaster
Escherichia coli
Caenorhabditis elegans
Arabidopsis thaliana
Mus musculus
Saccharoyces cerevisiae
neurospora crassa
zea rerio
xenopus laevia

16

Why are these animals desireable
?

Easy to contain, reproduce quickly, easy to manipulated,

17

model gnetic organism

... oranisms with hcaracteristics that make them useful for genetic analysis,

18

Common characteristics of model organisms

1. short generation time
2. production of numerous progeny
3. controlled genetic crosses
4. reared in a lab
5. numerous
6. lg body of knowledge about genetic system

19

What are some of the implications of all organisms having similar genetic systems?

. That all life forms are genetically related
. That reserach findings on one organisms gene efunciton can often be applied to other organism
. that genes from one organism can often exist and thrive in another organism...
ALL the above....
Look at questions at end of chapter.

20

2 types of cells

eukaryotic and prokaryotic

21

what is a fundamental unit of heredity

gene

22

what come from multiple forms called alleles?

gene

23

genes confer

phenotype

24

genetic information is carrried by

RNA and DNA

25

genes are located

on chromosomes

26

chromosomes are seperateee through

the process of mitosis and meiosis

27

Permanent changes in genetic information that can be passed from one cell to another or from parent to offspring

mutations

28

some traits are affected by

multiple factors

29

evolution is

a genetic change

30

gene

inherited determinant of the phenotype
elements that control triats
located at a specific position on a chromosome referred to as a locus
the smallest genetic unit that exhibits the cis-trans position effect(=gene)

31

allele

alternate form of a gene

32

phenotype

the observable attributes of an organism;
some things can not be obsereved with the eyes... it may need a chemical analysis

33

genotype

the genes that an organism posses

34

chromosomes

the form of genetic material in viruses and cells;
circle of DNA in prokaryotes
DNA or RNA molecule in viruses
A linear nucleoprotien complex in eukaryotes

35

flow of genetic information

classical... DNA -->RNA--> Protein.... not always like this.

36

Evolution

The change over time... changes in genetic composition... phenotype change

37

Chromatin

condensed chromosomes.... colored substance.

38

Histones

H1 raps and forms beaded chain. limit accessibility of enzymes and other proteins to copy and read DNA. enable DNA to fit within the nucleus . must be seperated for genetic informaiton to be accessed

39

Origins of replicaiton

Where DNA is being replicated, the two strands split and base pairing starts...

40

Prokaryotes

Eubacteria, and Archaea...Cells that doe not have a membrane bound nucleus

41

Eukaryotes

membrane bound nucleus.. .mitochondria... other stuff...

42

Nucleus in prokaryote

is absent

43

prokaryote size

1 to 10 um in diameter

44

prokaryote DNA

circular...

45

unicellular, no membrane bound organelle

prokaryotes

46

DNA is closely associated with

histones, to form tightly packed chromosomes

47

Eukaryotic chromosomes are typically found

in pairs... The two members of a pair share the same loci and are referred to as homologous chromosed

48

A set of chromosomes cosists of

one member of each pair of chromosomes...

49

Diploid cells have

two complete sets of chromoses

50

Haploid (monoploid) cells have

a single complete set of chromosomes

51

Tetraploid cells have

four complete sets of chromosmes

52

triploid cells have

three complete sets of chromosomes

53

centromere

eukaryote. serves as the attachment point for spindel microtubules...
used for chromosome classification...
metacentri- central
submetacentricic- kinda off center
acrocentric- way off center
telocentric. short arm and long arm. at very end... short arm P longQ

54

A diploid organism has

two sets of chromosomes organized as homologous pairs

55

Genetic information is transfered from

DNA to RNA to protien

56

chromatin

DNA + Histones

57

heterochromotin

tightly folded. can not be transcribed or replicated.

58

euchromatin

stretched out DNA being used

59

telomeres

the stable ends of chromosomes, provide stability, limit cell division, play a role in aging and cancer...

60

centromere

a constricted region of chromosome where the kinetochores form and the spindle microtubules attach

61

telmerase

...

62

major functions of mitosis

during embryonic development, mitosis produces a stockpile of cells for embryogenesis
organismal growth occurs through mitotic activity (hyperplasia)

63

mitosis provieds a mechanism for

the relacement of damaged or worn-out cells

64

Cell Cycle

...

65

G1

the cell growth

66

Go

non dividing

67

S phase

DNA synthesis, further prep for mitotic division... B cyclins bind to cdc2 kinase. activated MPF leads to activites necessary for mitotis, 2 hrs.

68

G2

gap phase, 2 hours

69

M phase

actual mitotic phase... less than an hour

70

interphase

everything but M phase... Prior to S only 1 chromatic. After 2 chromatid

71

physical division of nuclear material

karyokinesis

72

physical division of cytoplasmic material

cytokinesis

73

karyokinesis is not followed by cytokinessi results in a increase in ploidy,

endomitosis

74

plodiy

increase in complete sets of chromosomes