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Flashcards in Biology Day 8 Deck (26):
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Thermoregulation

significant amount of heat is lost to expired air

1

Protection from pathogens and particultes

in lungs

2

nose hairs and mucous

prevent pahtogens from reachign lungs

3

goblet cells

secrete mucus lining in the respiratory tract

4

cilia propel

mucus and pathogents

5

macrophages in alveoli

phagoctose

6

respiratoy system

pharynx, larynx, trachea, primary bronchi, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli

7

exchange surface

bronchioles/alveoli

8

associated muscles, bones, of the thoraci cavity

diaphram, abdomianal muscles, intercostals, rib cae

9

alveoli

air-filled sacs surrounded by cappliaries, thin walled with huge surface area, cated with surfactant(reduces tention),

10

make up to 95% of alveolar walls and is the site of gas exchange

type I alveolar cells

11

secrete surfactant

type II alveolar cells

12

inspiration is caused

by Contraction of the diaphram

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the lungs are surrounded by

two plueral sacs

14

diaphram is connected

to the outer pleural sac

15

expansion of the lungs

LOWERS the presssure inside them

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the diaphram is innervated by

the somatic nervous system

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inspriation cna be

voluntary or involuntary

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expiration

passive elastic recoil of the lungs (resiliency)

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forced expiration involves

contraction of the abdominal and intercostal muscles.. noramlly experiation is involuntary

20

Human skin

prevent loss of water, impermeable to water

21

Skin, thermoregulation

heat retention, heat removal, physical protection, dermal layers,

22

heat retention

hairs help with heat retention, errect when cold, hypodermis contains an insulating layer of adiipose tissue to prevent heat loss, vasocontriciton of the suface capillaries in the dermis minimizes heat loss

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heat removal

sweat glands in the dermis release sweat(water and salt), evaporation removes heat, vasodialiation of the suface capliarries in the dermis increases heat loss thorugh the skin,

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Physical protection,

skin protects form pathogens, fingernals and toe nales, made of kertin, protect ends, callus build up protects areas more prone to abrasion

25

dermal layers

Epidermis, composed of stratified squamous,
Dermis- composed of loose connective tissue, contains blood vessels, never ending and exocrine glands
Hypodermis- contains adipose tissue for insulation