Biology Day 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biology Day 9 Deck (92):
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gonads

testes; produce sperm and secrete testosterone

1

external genitalia

penis and scrotum(sac holding testes-helps regulate temp)

2

internal genitalia

accessory glands and ducts

3

productions/ejaculation of sperm

storage and maturation-epidymis, vasedeferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra

4

nutrients enzymes prostaglandins

seminal vesicles

5

buffers, nutirents, enzymes

prostrate gland

6

mucus and buffers

bulbourethral glands

7

female gonads

ovaries, produce ova and secrete estrogen and progestrone

8

femal exteranl genitalia

vulva(labia majora and miora, clitoris)

9

internal genetalia female

vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes,

10

birth canal

vagina

11

the womb

uterus

12

layer of gladualr epithelium shed during menstruation

endometrium

13

thick layer of smooth muscle

myometrium

14

opening of the uterus

cervix

15

dialted slightly during ferile days and greatly during childbirth

cervix

16

carry ova from the ovary to the uterus (via peristalisis)

falloiaian tubues

17

Male gametes

spermatozoa

18

male germ cells

spermatogonia

19

results of male germ cells

4 haploid sperm... start during puberty

20

female gametes

ova

21

famale germ cells

oogonia

22

female results

1 ovum, 2 polar bodies... 500,000 primary oocytes produced during fetal develpment, ovulation from puberty to menopasue

23

Spermatozoa produced in

seminiferous tubules of the testes

24

what regulate sperm developmetn

sustentacular cells

25

secrete testoterone

leydig cells (interstial cells)

26

spematogonium

diploid 1 makes 4

27

primary spermatocyte

diploid

28

secondary spermatocytes

meisis 1 diploid

29

spermatids

meiosis ii hapoid...

30

spermatozoa

Epidymis.... haploid

31

GnRH(male)

stimulates release of LH and FSH from hypothalmus

32

LH and FSH inhibit(male)

GnRH
from anterior pitutiary

33

(m) LH stimulates

Leydig cells to produce testoterone

34

what helps maintina spermatognesis

testosterone

35

Testosterone inhibits

GnFH and LH

36

Testis release

inhibin

37

Testis inhibits

release FSH

38

Oogonia develp

inot prmary oocytes before birth... arrest in propahse 1

39

primary ooctyes splits into

secondary oocyte and first polar body in Meiosis 1... arrest in Metaphae II, ovulated

40

Meiosis II is only completed

if fertilized

41

oogonium

diploid

42

primary oocyte

diploid

43

seondary oocytes

haploid and first polar body

44

zygote to

cleavage.... 2,4,8 celled...

45

cleavage to

morula

46

morula to

blastocyt

47

blastocyt

implants

48

primary oocyte is enclosed

in a follicle

49

ooctye is surrounded by a layer

of granulosa cells and an outer layer called theca

50

Folliular phase (day 1-13)

fsh stimulated follicle maturation

51

FSH and LH stimulate production

of estrogen by the maturing follicle

52

The follicular remains become

corpus luteum

53

Luteal Phase(Day 15-28)

th corpus luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone.... corpus luteum degenerates thorughout the phase bc of low LH.... estrogen and progestrone levles drop at the end of this phase signaling menstuation all over again

54

Pregnancy occurs... what horomone is produced?

hCG

55

hCG keeps

the corpus luteum from degeneragting in place of lH

56

Corpus luteum during pregnancy maintins

high levles of estrogen and progestrone (first 2-3 months)

57

the placenta

takes over production of estrogen and progestrone for the remainder of the pregnancy

58

the endometrium isnt shed...

ovulation does not occur, LH remains low

59

GnRH in women

stimualtes release of LH and FSH

60

LH in women

stimulates the follicle to produce estrogen

61

FSH in women

stimuatles the follicle to mature...

62

Estrogen inhiibts

release of GnRH, LH, and FSH

63

Follicles release

ihibin of FSH

64

Meses(1-7)

endometrium is lsoughed off; signalled by low levels of estrogen and progestrogene

65

Proliferative Phase(7-14) mentstral cycle

increasing levesll of estrogen lead to endometrial growth

66

secretory phase(15-28) mentstral cycle

preperation for implantation. endometirla cell deposit lipids and glycogen in their cytoplasm

67

Fertilization takes place

in fallopian tubes

68

acrosomess contains

enzymes that allow the sperm to penetrate the corona radiata and zona pellucida

69

how many sperm fertalize ovum

single sperm

70

what prevents more sperm from fertalizing

depolarization and an influx in Ca prevent subsequent sperm from penetrating

71

sperm injects only into

nucleus

72

cytoplasm and organelles comes from

mother

73

after fertalization... the ovum completels meiosis ii

and the two nuclei fuse together to become a zygote..

74

fertalization ususlaly occurs

in the distal end of the fallopian tubes

75

the jorney in the uterus usually takes

4-5 days

76

cleavage

cell division with little cell growth

77

blastocyt hollow ball of 100 cells

outer layer.. trophoblast, trphoblast becomes corion/placenta and secretes hCG, inner cell mass adheres to one side, inner cell mass will be the growing embryo, blastocyt embeds in the endometrium, chorionic villi pierce the vascular endometrium

78

gastrulation

blastocyt folds in on intself forming three germ layers

79

ectoderm

epidermis, nervous system, eyes and ears

80

mesoderm

dermis, muscle and bone, connective tissue, cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, urnary system, reproductive system,

81

endoderm

repiratory epithelium, digestive epithelium, digestive system, bladder,

82

folding of the ectoderm to form the central nervous system

neurulation

83

Birth occurs

btw 38 and 40 wks

84

Lactation

prolactin stimulates milk production, estrogen and progestrone stiumlate develpment of breasts/mammory glands but inhibit prolactin, estrogen and progestrone leevels fall after delivery, prolactin levels increase 10 fold, suckling stimulates the relase of prolactin and oxytocin

85

Birth

cervix

86

cell specilization is due to

differential gene expression

87

the chooseing of a particular fate for cell type even through it isnt yet appartent

determination

88

the result of determination in which a cell has become a distince cell type

differentiation

89

what causes mechanisms of differential gene expression

transcription

90

cell to cell communication

induction
extracellular signals, direct contact, gap junctions

91

extracelluarl signal

receptor mediated