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Flashcards in imuno Deck (119):
1

neutrophil stimulation

granulocyte colony stimulating factor GSF

2

what play a major role in innate and adaptive immune response?

Mo, Mast cells, dendritic cells,

3

monocytes come from

csf

4

monocytes development in fetus

yolk sac, blood, tissue specific

5

IFN-gamma causes

TNF alpha, IL1, IL6 to liver which cause acute phase proting and cell lysis

6

TNF alpha and IL1 cause tissue

inflammation

7

What causes tissue repair with phagocytes?

Elastase collagenase
-fibrogenic stim factor
angiogenic factors

8

What are monocytes effector functions?

-toxic factors
-TNF proteases
-NO
-perioxide
-O2
-Lysozyme
-Hydorlase

9

Macrophages present to T helper cells which activest T cells and?

further activates procution of cytokines to activates macrophages more
-this is important for the eradication of microbes that are ingested by phagocytes but resist killing

10

immunomodulation

bacteria gives of IL10 and IL12
IL 10 activates Th2
IL 12 activates TH1 which also activates Th2

11

In the fetus dendritc cells come from?

liver, yolk sac and become Langerhans cells

12

Naïve lymphocytes enter the LN through?

an artery, and move across HEV

13

How do DC enter lymphocyte?

afferent lyphatic vessels

14

in spleen B cells are in?

lymphoid follicle with a germinal center

15

IN spleen, T cells are in

periarteriolar lymphoid sheath

16

specific example of innate lymphoid

natural killer cells

17

What do NK's secrete?

INF-gamma

18

Follicular DCs provide?

antigenic stimulus that dirves Ab affinity maturation

19

What does plamacytoid DCs activate?

INF alpha and beta

20

Most important for activation of naïve T cells?

DCs

21

Matruation of DCs dependent on?

FLT3, which binds to Flt3 tyrosine kinase receptor on the precursor cells

22

What cells are APCs?

B cells, Mo, DCs

23

How do lyphocyes reenter circulation?

efferent lymph vessels that merge into the thoracic duct

24

First antibody B produces?

IgM

25

After IgM?

IgD

26

What do B cells mature into?

memory cells and plasma cells

27

B cells start to develop?

14th week of gestation

28

Where does differentiation of B cells occur in the fetus/

fetal liver

29

B cell development/

stromal cells, IL1, IL6, IL7

30

What is rearranged for multiple codes of lymphocytes?

germline

31

T helper cells express

Cd4, help for B cell growth and differentiation

32

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes express

CD8, recognize and kill virus- infected cells

33

T cell ILs?

IL1, IL2, IL6, IL7

34

What maintains B cells/

BAFF

35

What maintains T cells?

IL7, low level cycling

36

recruitment of leukocytes and plama protines is part of?

inflammation process

37

What does the inflammation process do?

delivers cells and molecules of host defense to the site where agents need to be combated

38

What activate endothelia cells/

cytokines from Mo and mast cells

39

What does endothelial activation create?

increased adhesion

40

Adhesion molecueles on HEV

addressins

41

P selectin distribution

endothelium activated by histamine or thrombin

42

E selectin distribution

endothelium activated by cytokines (TNF and IL1) with in 1 to 2 hours

43

L selectin distirbution

neutrophils, monocytes, T cells, B cells

44

P selectin ligand

Sialyl Lewis X on PSGL-1
-glycoproteins, neutrophils,monocytes, T cells

45

E selectin ligand

sialyl Lewis X
-glycoproteins, neutrophils, monocytes, T cells

46

L selectin ligand

sialyl X (PNAd) on GlyCAM1
-CD34, MadCAM1 and HEV

47

What activates L selectins at inflammation?

IL1 and TNF

48

L selectins are very improtnat for ?

homing into LNs by interacting with HEV

49

L selectin ligands expressed on HEV is called?

peripheral node addressins (PNAd)

50

LFA 1 distribution What express it?

neutrophils, monocytes, T cells, B cells, intracellular adhesion molecules

51

LFA-1 ligand

ICAM-1, ICAM-2, endothelium

52

Mac-1 distribution

neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic cells

53

Mac-1 ligand

ICAM 1, ICAM2, endothelium

54

VLA-4 distribution

monocytes, T cells, vascular cell adhesion molecules

55

VLA4 ligand

VCAM1 endothelium

56

alpha4beta7 distirbiution

monocytes, T cells, naïve, effector, memory B cells

57

alpha4beta7

VCAM1, MadCAM1, endothelium in gut and gut associtated lyph nodes

58

Integrins structure

hererodimeric cell surface proteins, two noncovalently linked polypeptide chains

59

What is the function of integrins?

mediate adhesion of cells to other cells

60

What does integrin signals do?

molitily, shape change, and phagocytic respsones

61

Chemokines structure?

cystein residues, two internal disulfind bonds

62

CCL1, I-309

CCR8, monocytes recruitment and endothelial cell migration

63

CCL2, MCP-1

CCR2, mixed leukocyte recruitment

64

CCL3,MIP-1alpha

CCR1, CCR5 mixed leukocyte recruitment

65

CCL4, MIP-1beta

CCR1, CCR5, T cell, dendritic cell, monocytes and NK recruitment, HIB co receptor

66

CCL5, RANTES

CCR1, CCR3, CCR5, mixed leukocyte recruitment

67

CCL11, Eotaxin

CCR3, eosinophil, basophil, and Th2 recruitment

68

CCL17, TARC

CCR4, T cell recruitment

69

CCL19, MIP-3beta

CCR7, T cell and dendritic cell migration into parafollicular zones of lyph nodes

70

CCL20, MIP-3alpha

CCR6, Th17 recruitment, DC positioning in tissue

71

CCL21, SLC

CCR7, T cell and dendritic cell migration into parafollicular zones of lyph nodes

72

CCL22, MDC

CCR4, NK cell, T cell recruitment

73

CXCL1, GROalpha

CXCR2, neutrophil recruitment

74

CXCL5, ENA-78

CXCR2, neutrophil recrutment

75

CXCL8, IL8

1 and 2, neutrophil recruitmen

76

CXCL10, IP-10

3 and 3b, effector T cell recruitment

77

CXCL11, I-TAC

3 and 7, effector T cell recruitment

78

cxcl12, SDF-1aplha, beta

4, Mixed leukocyte recruitment; HIV coreceptors

79

CXCL13, BCA1

5, B cell migration into follicles; T follicular helper cell migration into follicles

80

CXCL14, BRAK

monocyte and dendritic cell migration

81

XCL1, Lymphotactin

XCR1, T cell and NK cell recruitment

82

CX3CL1 fractalikine

CX3CR1, T cell, NK cell, and monocyte recruitment; CTL and NK cell activation

83

Do neutrophils and monocytes have to be activated to be recruited into tissue?

NO

84

How doe neutrophils and monocytes get into tissue/

post capillary venules except parenchymal tissues(liver, lungs, Kidneys) where they enter through capillaries

85

What do Mo produce?

TNF and IL1

86

What selectin intitates rolling?

P selectin

87

What further stabiles roling/

L selectins

88

What chemokine doe endothelial cells express?

IL8, CXCL8 that recognize neutrohips

89

What controls transmigration of monocytes?

CCL2(MCP1)

90

Naïve T cells enter LN?

through an artery, across HEV

91

DCs bearing Ag enter LN?

through afferent lymphatic vessels

92

Effector and memory T cells eneter peripheral tissues through?

venules at sites of inflammation

93

Why do naïve T cells home to LNs?

L selectins binding to PNAd on HEV

94

What chemokines are displayed on the surface of HEV?

CCL19 and CCL21

95

WHat chemokines being to ... activates integrins?

CCR7

96

Naïve T cells have low levels of?

S1PR1, bc the receptor is internalized after binding S1P in the blood

97

Naïve T cells recently entering LN cannot sense S1P concentration btw?

T cell zone of the node and lyph

98

Why can naïve T cells not leave node for several hours?

wait until S1PR1 is re expressed to re enter

99

What level of S1PR1 do ag activated T cells have?

low, it is re expressed after several days

100

What mediate cell migration into the tissue/

E selectin, P selectin, integrins, and chemokines (CXCL10)

101

LFA-1 and ICAM1 function?

stable arrest on HEV in lymph node

102

What is needed for mobilization of effecto T cells?

CD44

103

Endothelial cells secrete

E and P selectins and Hyaluronic acid

104

what does hyaluronic acid bind?

CD44 for T cells

105

What does chemokind signaling via GPCRs result in?

increased integrin affinity such as VLA-4

106

CD55 and HA may also trigger/

GPCR dependent inside out signaling upregulation of VLA-4VCAM binding

107

how do immature B cells migrate through the blood?

enter the red pulp of the spleen, migrate to periphery of the white pulp

108

WHat do B cells express as they mature?

CXCR5, which promotes their movement into the white pulp

109

What promotes B cell movement into white pulp?

CXCL13

110

Homing process for B cells into LN involves?

CXCL12, CCL19/CCL21 with chemokine receptors CXCR$ and CCR7 on naïve B cells

111

B cells migrate into follicles driven by ?

CXCL13 recognized by CXCR5 expressed on navie B cells

112

ICAM

intracellular adhesion molecules

113

Glycam

glycan bearing cell adhesion molecule

114

LFA

leukocyte function associtated antigetn

115

VCAm

vascular cell adhesion molecues

116

madcam

mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecules

117

integrins response to intracellular signals by?

rapidly increasing their affinity

118

activation of integrin causes?

conformational changes

119

what controls transmigration of monocytes

CCL2, MCP1