Flashcards in part 2 Deck (86):
opsonization and phagocytosis
lysis of microbe
second step in activation pathway?
production of c3b and formation of C3 convertase
What coes C3b initiates activation of?
C5 and formation of C 5 convertase
MAC, creates hole in plasma membrane
proteolytic cascades in which an inactive precursosr enzyme becomes active and cleaves next complement protein cascasde
complement system works in cooperation with/
blood coagulation pathways
kinin kallikrein system that regulates vascular permability
TLRs 1-9 bind?
microbial ags (LPS, peptidoglcans, viral mucleic acids)
expressed on cell surface of
TLR 1,2,4,5,6 DCs phagocytes B cells endothelial cells
expressed on endsosomal membrane
cytosol of phagocytes, epithelial cells, and other cells,
PAMP/DAMP ligands of NLRs
bacterial cell wall peptidoglycans, intracellular crystals;
cytosol of phagocytes and other cells
bacterial and viral DNA
WHat does tobacco smoke and pollutants activate?
TLR2 and TLR4
what are pamps?
molecular patterns on bacteria and viruses
cystosine-phosphoyl guanine virus
lipoteiochoic acid bacteria
lipoteichoic acid (LTA)
DAMPs molecule patterns on endogenous intracellular proteints
-damage to cells by ROS
-HMGB1(nucleus to lysosome)
-extracellular matrix hyaluronans
What does capsase 1 activation cause?
release of inerlukin 1beta and 18 and can cause death of host cell
What are antimicrobial or anti inflammatory products?
resolvins or protectins
eicosanoids that resolve inflamation
TLR1 and TLR2
WHat adaptor do TLRs 1, 2,5, and 6 recognize/
what does MyD88 activate?
NF-kB and AP-1
TLR 7 and 9 use MyD88 to activate?
NFkB and IRF7
What adaptor does TLR3 use?
TRIF and it activates IRF3 and IRF7 transcription factors
What do microbial lipoportines acvivate?
What does LPS activate?
WHat does bacterial DNA sequences contain unmethlated cytosine-guanosine dinucleoties (CpGs)
What does the activation of NFkB result in?
transcription of pro inflammatory genes
WHat controls adaptive T cell immune response?
What does not signal through MyD88
TLR3, signals through TLR3
What engage TRIF and TRAM?
What engage TIRAP and MyD88?
TLR4 and TLR2
WHat is produced in the inflammason
IL 1 beta and IL 18
WHat is a sub family of 14 NOD?
NLRP.... P is pyrin domain containing protein
What does NLRP responds to?
PAMPS and DAMPS by binding and forming singlaing complexes called inflammasomes
What does inflmmasome complexes activate?
What is the main function of caspase 1?
to cleave the inactive cytoplasmic precursor forms of two homologous cytokines 1 beta and 18
1 beta dn 18
what mediates the uptake of oxidized lipoproteins?
what SRs are expressed on Mo?
SR-A and CD36, recogniztion and phagocytosis of microorganims
What do SRs bind bacteria based on?
negative charges of bacterial LPS, lipoteichoic acid, nucleic acid....
WHat bind carbohydrates
C type lectin family
What do conserved carb recognition domain recognize?
microbial mannose, N acetylglucosamine, and betal glucans
eukaryotic carb cells are terminated by
galactos and sialic acid
lectin that are soluble protines are found in?
blood and extracellular fluids
Where are integral membrane proteins?
found on surface of macrophages and dendritic cells
What do mannose receptors recognize?
termal D mannose, Lfucose, and n acetyl D glucosamine sugsars on microbial surface
mannose receptor is involved in?
phagocytosis of microbes
what are small cationic peptiedes that contain both cationic anc hydrophobic regions?
what produce defensins?
epithleial cells of mucosal surface and nby granule containing leukocytes including,
neutorphils, NK, and CTLs
WHat stimulates the synthesis of defensins?
cytokines and microbial products
How do defensins kill?
inserting into and diruspting functions of the membrane
What produce cathelicidins?
neutorphils and barrier epithelial cells in the skin, gastorpintestinal tract and respiratory tract
What is cathelicinds cleaved into?
two protective peptides
What cleaves cathelicidins?
cytokines and microbial prodcuts
What is the C terminal fragment of cathelicidins called?
LL37, can bind and neutorpliez LPS
what play an anti inflammatory role aby binding to DNA and blocking AIM2 inflammasome acitvation
What transcription factor do innate lymphoid cells develop from?
Id2----> IL15 and IL7=
T bet, ILC1--> IL12, IL18=
defense against viruses
gata3, ILC2--> IL25, IL33, TSLP
IL5 and IL13
RORgammt, ILC3----> IL1 and IL23=
IL 17, IL22
intestinal barrier function; lymphoid organogenesis
il 17 and IL22
What response to IL12?
WHat produces IL12
IgG coated cell
NCRs(NKp46, NKp30, NKp44)
biral hemaglutinins, HLA-B transcript 3, B7-H6, heparin sulfate prtoegolycan (HSPG)
HLAa, B, C, E,F G, CMB UL18