Chemistry day 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chemistry day 8 Deck (43):
0

Loss of electrons

oxidation

1

gain of electrons

reduction

2

elements in their elemental form

zero oxidations state

3

group one metals

+1

4

group 2 metals

+2

5

Hydrogen

+1 except when bonded to metals then -1..

6

Transition metals...

must be deteremined by anions charge... (Al=+3, Zn=+2, Cd=+2, Ag=+1)

7

most electrognegative elements get

their typical oxidation state

8

The last element not assigned balances....

balances the compound/ion

9

Oxidizing agent(oxidant)

species that is reduced

10

reducing agent(reductant)

speies that is oxidiezed

11

Elements or compounds are oxidized/reduced

entire chemical species act as the reducing/oxidizing agents

12

Anode

ALWAYs the size of oxidation.... an ox... electrochemical cell

13

Cathode... electrochemical cells

always teh site of recution RED CAT

14

Electrochemical Cells

Electrons always flow from anode to cathode

15

Anions flow to the...

anode and cations to the cathode through the salt bridge...

16

Galvanic/voltaid

(spontaneous) cells, the cathode is + and the anode is -

17

Electrolyic cell

non-spontaneous... the anode is + and the cathode is -

18

metal/metal salt solution cells

the cathode gains mass, while the anode loses mass

19

Voltaic cells

Battires E>0... Produce electricity ...... Anode(-) to Cathode(+) species oxidized...

20

Standard Hydrogen Electrode SHE

potnetial of 0.00 V

21

Solid

can not effect shift in equillibrium

22

shift to the right...

higher potential

23

shift to the left

lower potential

24

Spontaneous Rxns

G0 Q

25

strongest oxidizing agent

most spontaneous

26

oxidized, reduced

product

27

Stable nuclei

even numbers of protons and or neutrons to be more stable

28

N/Z ration

Magic numbers are more stable (2,8,20,50,82,126)

29

Parent--->

daughter + energy

30

moss is always lost

E= mc^2

31

Alpha decay

reduces mass #... large nuclei below the belt

32

Beta deca (beta emission)

n----> p N/Z is too hight... same net result 0/-1

33

B + decay (Positron emission)

0/4 p--->n.... N/Z too low

34

gamma decay...

excited state to lower state

35

the splitting of larger nuclei into smaller nuclei

fission

36

the combination of smaller nuclei into larger nuclei

fusion

37

Rate of Decay

Always first order (InN=lnNo-kt) natural log

38

half life...

t1/2= .693/k

39

amount of energy holding somethign together

mass defect

40

E=

mc^2

41

1g=

6.022X10^23 amu

42

Calculating nuclear biding energy

1 calculate mass defect (actual mass- predicted mass)
2. convert to kg
3. plug inot E=chang mc^2
4. divide by # of nucleons (total of p+n; same as mass #)