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Flashcards in Renal Acid and Base Regulation Deck (18):
0

What does the bicarbonate buffer system consists of ?

A weak acid (H2CO3) and a bicarbonate salt (NaHCO3); it is the most important extracellular buffer.

1

What is the most important in the formation of carbonic acid from carbon dioxide in water?

Carbonic anhydrase.

2

In a buffer system, addition of strong acids leads...

to formation of a weak acid and addition of a strong base leads to formation of a weak base.

3

Increased levels of HCO3 can be excreted via the kidneys resulting in...

A decrease in blood carbon dioxide levels resulting in a decrease in respiration rate.

4

What does the phosphate buffer system play a major role in buffering?

The renal tubular fluid and intracellular fluids.

5

What is the primary method for removing nonvolatile acids?

Through renal excretion.

6

Hydrogen ion secretion via secondary active transport ( coupled with sodium ion transport)...

occurs in almost all parts of the tubules except the descending and the ascending thin limbs of the loop of Henle.

7

Where does primary active hydrogen secretion begin?

In the late distal tubules in intercalated cells and involves a hydrogen-transporting ATPase.

8

Where does 80 to 90 percent of bicarbonate reabsorption occur?

In the proximal tubule.

9

Metabolic acidosis

a negative change in pH due to an decrease in bicarbonate ions

10

metabolic Alkalosis

A change in plasma pH due to an increase in bicarbonate ions

11

When is new bicarbonate ion added to the extracellular fluid?

metabolic acidosis

12

Bicarbonate ions are removed from extracellular fluid by renal excretion.

metabolic alkalosis

13

What is the lower limit pH that can be achieved my a normal kidney?

4.5

14

A change in plasma pH due to an increase in carbon dioxide is

respiratory acidosis

15

A change is plasma pH due to a decrease in carbon dioxide is

respiratory alkadosis

16

How do kidneys respond to respiratory acidosis?

By adding new bicarbonate ions to the extracellular fluid.

17

What is a compensatory response ot metabolic alkalosis?

Decreased vetilation