what is another name for pertussis?
bordatella causes what?
what are the 4 species of bordatella responsible for human disease?
Bordetella pertussis –
Bordetella pertussis –
how common is pertussis in the US?
what are the 2 vaccines for pertussis?
who do you give Tdap vaccine?
for everyone 11 years and older, including pregnant women
who do you give DTaP vaccine?
for children 2 months through 6 years of age
Why then are there increasing cases & outbreaks of the disease in the US ?
- Immunity in vaccinated individuals wanes over time *
- Adults (vaccinated in childhood) can still contract disease (typically mild) – reservoir *
- Highly contagious – newborns and young infants (less than one year) get infected (severe disease/death) *
what is the biology of bordatella pertussis?
Gram negative coccobaccilus, strict aerobe
how does bordatella pertussis spread?
how contagious is bordatella pertussis?
what part of the body does bordatella pertussis target?
Infects ciliated respiratory epithelium *
where do we find bordatella pertussis reservoir?
Reservoir: infected humans with mild disease *
who is at risk of acquiring bordatella pertussis?
Unvaccinated (children & adults) *
who will get the worst of the disease?
what are the virulence factors for bordatella pertussis?
1. Filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, fimbriae
- Pertussis toxin helps
- Damage to respiratory mucosa:
2. Adenylate cyclase toxin
- Increase in cAMP increased respiratory secretions
- Impairs leukocyte chemotaxis inhibits phagocytosis
3. Tracheal cytotoxin
- Interferes with ciliary action, kills ciliated cells
- Inhibits regeneration of damaged cells
- Dermonecrotic toxin
4. PERTUSSIS TOXIN*
- increase in resp. secretions
what does the Pertussis toxin * promote?
what will the pertussis toxin inhibit?
Inhibits phagocytic killing
the pertussis toxin will increase sensitivity to what?
Increased histamine sensitivity
what are the 3 phases of pertussis infection?
- Catarrhal phase (1-2 weeks)
- Paroxysmal phase (1-6 weeks)
- Convalescent phase
what happens in the catarrhal phase?
sneezing, mild cough, low fever, runny nose
what happens in the paroxysmal phase?
- Severe cough (5-20 forced hacking coughs followed by a “whooping” sound on inspiration)
- Apnea (pause in breathing) – in infants
- Anoxia and vomitting may occur
what happens in the Convalescent phase?
cough fits gradually decrease in length and intensity
what complications can pertussis lead to in infants and children?
- Neurological damage (in infants might be permanent)
- 1-2% deaths (unvaccinated infants)
what nasopharyngeal cultures can be used to confirm pertussis?
Bordet-Genou medium / Regan-Lowe medium *
Has charcoal added *
what is the treatment for pertussis?
when should expecting mothers receive vaccines for pertussis?
(at 27-36 weeks) *